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Table 2 Risk of bias and quality assessment summary

From: A rapid review of the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of healthcare workers: implications for supporting psychological well-being

  Author Participants and setting described in detail, including similarity of controls Criteria for inclusion clearly defined and exposures similarly measured Exposure measured in valid and reliable way Objective, standard criteria used for measurement of condition Confounding factors identified Strategies to deal with confounding factors stated Outcomes measured in valid and reliable way Appropriate statistical analysis used? JBI Score [19] Risk of Bias [20]
1 Ahmed et al., 2020 [21] + + + + + ? + 6 Low
2 Balakumar et al., 2020 [22] Risk of bias of uncontrolled before-after studies (assessed with ROBINS – I) [23]: Low quality evidence  
3 H. Cai et al., 2020 [24] + + + + + + 6 Low
4 W. Cai et al., 2020 [25] + + + + + + + 7 Low
5 Cao et al., 2020 [26] Mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) used (Hong et al., 2018) S1–2 not addressed satisfactory: Low quality evidence   
6 Chew et al., 2020 [27] + + + + + + + + 8 Low
7 Chung & Yeung, 2020 [28] + + + 3 High
8 Huang & Zhao, 2020 [29] + + + + + + + 7 Low
9 Kang et al., 2020 [30] + + + + + + + 7 Low
10 Lai et al., 2020 [31] + + + + + + + 7 Low
11 Li et al., 2020 [32] + + + + + + + 7 Low
12 Liang et al., 2020 [33] + + + + 4 High
13 Lu et al., 2020 [34] + + + + + + + 7 Low
14 Mo et al., 2020 [35] + + + + + + 6 Minor
15 Shacham et al., 2020 [36] + + + + + + + 7 Low
16 Sun et al., 2020 [37] Joanna Briggs Institute tool to assess qualitative studies used – 10 item tool [38]: High quality evidence 9  
17 Tan et al., 2020 [39] + + + + + + + 7 Low
18 Urooj et al., 2020 [40] Mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) [41] S1–2 & all 5 criteria addressed satisfactory: High quality evidence  
19 S. Wang et al., 2020 [42] + + + + + + + 7 Low
20 Wu et al., 2020 [43] + + + + + + 6 Minor
21 Xiao et al., 2020 [44] + + + + + + 6 Minor
22 Xu et al., 2020 [42] Assessed with Critical Appraisal Skills Programme appraisal tool [45] Minor
23 Yin & Zeng, 2020 [46] Joanna Briggs Institute tool to assess qualitative studies used – 10 item tool [38]: High quality evidence 10  
24 Zhang et al., 2020 [47] + + + + + + + 7 Low