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Table 1 Study Characteristics

From: A rapid review of the impact of COVID-19 on the mental health of healthcare workers: implications for supporting psychological well-being

  Author Design Country Participants Selection method Measures
1 Ahmed et al., (2020) [21] Cross-sectional Global (30 countries) n = 650 Online questionnaire distributed via email and social media to dental professionals worldwide. Validated questionnaire: 22 closed-ended questions divided into two sections. (Fear & Clinical practices)
2 Balakumar et al., (2020) [22] Uncontrolled before and after study. UK n = 27 (Surgeons) Pre- and post-training surveys distributed to a surgical team. Pre- and post-training surveys
3 H.Cai et al., (2020) [24] Cross-sectional China Hunan n = 534 (Frontline medical workers) Questionnaires sent to frontline medical staff in Hunan province between January and March 2020. Five-section questionnaire
4 W.Cai et al., (2020) [25] Cross-sectional China Jiangsu Province n = 1521
(147 experienced in public health emergencies (PHE))
Health care workers recruited but method unclear. SCL-90
5 Cao et al., (2020) [55] Mixed methods China Beijing n = 37 (16 Doctors, 19 Nurses, and 2 Technicians within a COVID-19 clinic) Qualitative and Quantitative evaluations of staff in a fever clinic. Staff had been handpicked based on their ‘experience, adaptability and tenacity under pressure in past works’ PHQ-9, MBI, Qualitative interviews
6 Chew et al., (2020) [27] Cross- sectional Singapore & India n = 906 (480 HCW’s from a Singapore Hospital) HCWs from 5 major hospitals invited to participated in a questionnaire between Feb 2019 – April 2020. DASS-21, IES-R Symptom questionnaire
7 Chung & Yeung, (2020) [28] Cross-sectional China Hong Kong n = 69 (HCWs: 69/8418 full-time hospital staff) Online mental health self-assessment questionnaire distributed to all hospital staff in the Hong Kong East Cluster. PHQ-9
8 Huang & Zhao, (2020) [29] Cross- sectional China Nationwide n = 603 (31.1% HCWs) Web-based survey of general population, invited via social media, random recruitment – all Chinese people using WeChat may have seen it. Web-based survey. PSQI, GAD, CES-D
9 Kang et al., (2020) [30] Cross-sectional China, Wuhan n = 994 (Doctors and Nurses) Questionnaire distributed online to doctors or nurses working in Wuhan. PHQ-9, GAD-7, ISI, IES-R
10 Lai et al., (2020) [31] Cross-sectional China (Nationwide but 60% from Wuhan) n = 1257 (Nurses and Doctors in 34 hospitals/fever clinics) Hospital based survey via region-stratified 2-stage cluster sampling from Jan 292,020 – Feb 32,020. PHQ-9, GAD-7, ISI, IES-R
11 Li et al., (2020) [32] Cross-sectional China, Wuhan n = 740 (214 general population and 526 Nurses) Mobile app-based questionnaire of general public and nurses in Wuhan. Vicarious Trauma Questionnaire (Chinese version)
12 Liang, Chen, Zheng, & Li, (2020) [56] Cross-sectional China, Guangdong Province n = 59 (23 Doctors and 36 Nurses from COVID-19 department and 21 HCWs from other departments) Questionnaire distributed to medical staff in a hospital. Method of distribution unclear. SDS, SAS
13 Lu, Wang, Lin & Li, (2020) [34] Cross-sectional China, Fujian n = 2299 (2042 Medical and 257 admin staff) Questionnaire survey of medical staff in a provincial hospital in Feb 2020. NRS, HAMA, HAMD
14 Mo et al., (2020) [35] Cross-sectional China, Wuhan n = 180 (Nurses from Guangxi supporting COVID-19 in Wuhan) Convenient sampling of nurses from Guangxi recruited to support COVID-19 work in Wuhan. 85.71% response rate of 180 nurses sampled. SO, SAS
15 Shacham et al., (2020) [36] Cross- sectional Israel n = 338 (Dental hygienists and Dentists) Dental hygienists and dentists, approached using social media, mailing lists and forums. Demands Scale—Short Version, GSES, Kessler K6
16 Sun et al., (2020) [37] Qualitative China, Henan (One hospital) n = 20 (Nurses/17 Female) Purposeful sampling of nurses caring for COVID-19 patients in a hospital. Jan/Feb 2020. Semi-structured interviews
17 Tan et al., (2020) [39] Cross- sectional Singapore (Two tertiary hospitals) n = 470 (HCWs – medical and non-medical) HCWs from two major tertiary hospitals in Singapore invited to participate, Feb/March 2020 DASS-21, IES-R
18 Urooj et al., (2020) [40] Mixed Method Pakistan n = 222 (134 without COVID-19 patients and 150 female) Purposive sampling of 250 clinicians from a range of specialities and seniority. 222 responded (88.8%) Doctors fears and expectations
19 Wang et al., (2020) [57] Cross-sectional China, Wuhan n = 123 (HCWs in a Paediatric centre) Questionnaire survey conducted at a paediatric centre in Wuhan. 50% of all HCWs responded & were included. PSQI, SAS, SDS
20 Wu et al., (2020) [43] Cross-sectional China, Wuhan n = 190 (Hubai cancer hospital – all from oncology 1:1 ratio frontline vs usual wards) 220 physicians and nurses from Hubai cancer hospital invited in March 2020. 190 included. MBI
21 Xiao et al., (2020) [44] Cross-sectional China, Wuhan n = 180 (54% Nurses and 45.6% Doctors from a respiratory medicine/ fever clinic) Unclear how participants were sampled. All were medical staff who treated COVID-19 patients in Jan/Feb 2020. SAS, GSES, SASR, PSQI, SSRS
22 Xu, Xu, Wang & Wang, (2020) [58] Longitudinal China, Shanghai n = 120 (Surgical staff. One hospital split into two groups of 60 Grp 1 – Jan-Feb (outbreak period) Grp 2 – March (non-outbreak) Surgical medical staff sampled. Anxiety scale, Depression score, Dream anxiety score, SF-36 scale
23 Yin & Zeng, (2020) [46] Qualitative – in-depth interviews China, Wuhan n = 10 (Nurses at the front-line; having cared for COVID-19 patients > 1 week) Purposive sampling  
24 Zhang et al., (2020) [47] Cross -sectional China, Nationwide n = 2182 (927 Medical HCWs; 680 Doctors and 247 Nurses, 1255 non-medical HCWs) Random sampling – anyone in China > 16 years were welcome to join using an online platform. ISI
Chinese versions
  1. Measures Description
  2. Depression: CES-D: Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, HAM-D: Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, PHQ-9: Patient Health Questionnaire, SCL-20: Symptom checklist depression scale, SDS: Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale
  3. Anxiety: GAD-7: Generalised Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire, HAM-A: Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, SAS: Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale
  4. Stress: SOS: Stress Overload Scale
  5. Depression & Anxiety: DASS-21: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale, PHQ-4: Patient Health Questionnaire-4
  6. Sleep: PSQI: Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, ISI: Insomnia Severity Index
  7. Others: CD-RISC: Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, Demands Scale—Short Version, Dream anxiety score, GSES: Generalised self-efficacy scale, IES-R: Impact of Event Scale, Kessler K6 Distress Scale, MBI: Maslach Burnout Inventory, SASR: the Stanford Acute Stress Reaction questionnaire, SCL-90: The Symptom Checklist-90-R, SF-36: Short Form Health Survey, SSRS: Social Support Rating Scale, Vicarious Trauma Questionnaire