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Table 5 Management by private practitioners of children with presumptive tuberculosis, by gender, in 12 selected districts in Pakistan, 2016

From: How do private practitioners in Pakistan manage children suspected having tuberculosis? A cross sectional study

Practice of private health care providers Total Female Male p-value
n(%) n(%) n(%)
Presumptive child TB   6519 2320 4199  
Diagnosed TB All 5193 (79.7) 1869 (80.6) 3324 (79.2) < 0.0001
Bacteriologically positive 498 (7.6) 244 (10.5) 254 (6.0)
Clinically diagnosed 4695 (72.0) 1625 (70.0) 3070 (73.1)
Notified Notified to NTP 187 (2.9) 113 (4.9) 74 (1.8) < 0.0001
Investigation practices Tuberculin Skin/PPD testing 219 (4.7) 106 (4.6) 113 (2.7) < 0.0001
Sputum Smear 1875 (28.8) 830 (35.8) 1045 (24.9) < 0.0001
X-ray 3005 (46.1) 1127 (48.6) 1878 (44.7) 0.003
X-pert test 324 (5.0) 154 (6.6) 170 (4.1) < 0.0001
Granuloma/Histopathology 837 (12.8) 331 (14.3) 506 (12.1) 0.010
Culture 152 (2.3) 67 (2.9) 85 (2.0) 0.03
Number of tests done* Only clinical assessment 2559 (39.3) 844 (36.4) 1715 (40.8) < 0.0001
1 test 2217 (34.01) 699 (30.1) 1518 (36.1)
2 test 1270 (19.5) 543 (23.4) 727 (17.3)
3 tests or more 473 (7.3) 234 (10.1) 239 (5.7)
Management practices Referred for TB diagnosis 3121 (47.9) 997 (43.0) 2124 (50.6) < 0.0001
Diagnosed and referred 2443 (37.5) 857 (36.9) 1586 (37.8)
Treated 955 (14.6) 466 (20.1) 489 (11.7)
Place of referral (n = 5564) District TB Centre (NTP) 3812 (68.5) 1260 (68.0) 2552 (68.8) 0.136
Private laboratory 1190 (21.4) 386 (20.8) 804 (21.7)
Private specialist hospital/GP 562 (10.1) 208 (11.2) 354 (9.5)
  1. *indicates how many tests were performed to reach final diagnosis