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Table 4 Management by private practitioners of children with presumptive tuberculosis, by age groups, in 12 selected districts in Pakistan, 2016

From: How do private practitioners in Pakistan manage children suspected having tuberculosis? A cross sectional study

Practice of private health care providers Total 0–4 years 5-11 years 12-14 years p-value
n(%) n(%) n(%) n(%)
Presumptive child TB   6519 1691 3214 1614  
Diagnosed TB All 5193 (79.7) 1564 (92.4) 2545 (79.2) 1084 (67.2) < 0.0001
Bacteriologically positive 498 (7.6) 68 (4.0) 204 (6.3) 226 (14.0)
Clinically diagnosed 4695 (72.0) 1496 (88.5) 2341 (72.8) 858 (53.1)
Notified Notified to NTP 187 (2.9) 35 (2.1) 90 (2.8) 62 (3.8) < 0.0001
Investigation practices Tuberculin Skin/PPD testing 219 (3.4) 45 (2.7) 112 (3.5) 62 (3.8) 0.1464
Sputum Smear 1875 (28.8) 242 (14.3) 910 (28.3) 723 (44.8) < 0.0001
X-ray 3005 (46.1) 683 (40.4) 1499 (46.6) 823 (51.0) < 0.0001
X-pert test 324 (5.0) 34 (2.0) 146 (4.5) 144 (8.9) < 0.0001
Granuloma/Histopathology 837 (12.8) 175 (10.4) 406 (12.6) 256 (15.9) < 0.0001
Culture 152 (2.3) 13 (0.8) 73 (2.3) 66 (4.1) < 0.0001
Number of tests done* Only clinical assessment 2559 (39.3) 842 (49.8) 1219 (37.9) 498 (30.9) < 0.0001
1 test 2217 (34.01) 574 (33.9) 1165 (36.3) 478 (29.6)
2 tests 1270 (19.5) 223 (13.2) 617 (19.2) 430 (26.6)
3 tests or more 473 (7.3) 52 (3.1) 213 (6.6) 208 (12.9)
Management practices Referred for TB diagnosis 3121 (47.9) 842 (49.8) 1578 (49.1) 701 (43.4) < 0.0001
Diagnosed and referred 2443 (37.5) 494 (29.2) 1293 (40.2) 656 (40.6)
Treated 955 (14.6) 355 (21.0) 343 (10.7) 257 (15.9)
Place of referral (n = 5564) District TB Centre (NTP) 3812 (68.5) 832 (62.3) 2006 (69.9) 974 (71.8) < 0.0001
Private laboratory 1190 (21.4) 388 (29.0) 561 (19.5) 241 (17.8)
Private specialist hospital/GP 562 (10.1) 116 (8.7) 304 (10.6) 142 (10.5)
  1. *indicates how many tests were performed to reach final diagnosis