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Table 2 Signs and symptoms of children with presumptive tuberculosis by age groups, recorded by private health care providers in 12 selected districts in Pakistan, 2016

From: How do private practitioners in Pakistan manage children suspected having tuberculosis? A cross sectional study

History and investigations Total 0–4 years 5-11 years 12-14 years p-value
n(%) n(%) n(%) n(%)
Total All presumptive cases 6519 (100) 1691 (100) 3214 (100) 1614 (100) < 0.0001
Girls 2320 (35.6) 639 (37.8) 1063 (33.1) 618 (38.3)
Boys 4199 (64.4) 1052 (62.2) 2151 (66.9) 996 (61.7)
Chest Cough more than two weeks 6006 (92.1) 1560 (92.3) 2959 (92.1) 1487 (92.1) 0.974
Failure to thrive 4210 (64.8) 1129 (66.8) 1947 (60.6) 1134 (70.3) < 0.0001
Systemic Fever 5794 (89.0) 1538 (91.0) 2836 (88.2) 1420 (88.0) 0.038
Loss of body weight 504 (7.7) 115 (6.8) 237 (7.4) 152 (9.4) 0.011
Enlarged cervical lymph nodes 785 (12.1) 147 (8.7) 389 (12.1) 249 (15.4) < 0.0001
BCG scar absent 1843 (28.2) 331 (19.6) 908 (28.3) 604 (37.4) < 0.0001
Meningitis Signs of slow onset meningitisa 658 (10.1) 115 (6.8) 330 (10.3) 213 (13.2) < 0.0001
Contacts Known pulmonary tuberculosis patient 778 (11.9) 234 (13.8) 391 (12.2) 153 (9.5) < 0.0001
  1. aSymptoms regarded as slow meningitis include headache, vomiting, irritability, lethargy, neck stiffness, bulging fontanella, coma