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Table 3 Impact of changes in lifestyle, overweight, and psychological status on incidence of constipation

From: Lifestyle, psychological stress, and incidence of adolescent constipation: results from the Toyama birth cohort study

  n = 5540 constipation univariate multivariate
  Baseline to 3 years later % OR 95%CI OR 95%CI P
Breakfast every day to everyday 4.3 1   1   
  every day to skipping 8.6 2.09 (1.47–2.97) 1.73 (1.20–2.49) 0.003
  skipping to every day 3.3 0.77 (0.34–1.76) 0.72 (0.31–1.67) 0.442
  skipping to skipping 7.1 1.72 (0.94–3.14) 1.51 (0.81–2.81) 0.199
Exercise active to active 3.8 1   1   
  active to inactive 7.3 2.01 (1.49–2.70) 1.55 (1.14–2.11) 0.006
  inactive to active 3.5 0.93 (0.57–1.53) 0.92 (0.56–1.52) 0.743
  inactive to inactive 6.1 1.66 (1.17–2.35) 1.42 (0.98–2.04) 0.057
Sleep not short to not short 4.3 1   1   
  not short to short 6.6 1.57 (1.16–2.14) 1.26 (0.92–1.72) 0.228
  short to not short 5.6 1.34 (0.72–2.51) 1.26 (0.67–2.39) 0.478
  short to short 5.7 1.36 (0.63–2.97) 1.07 (0.48–2.37) 0.865
TV < 3 to < 3 4.1 1   1   
(hour) < 3 to ≥3 5.2 1.30 (0.86–1.99) 1.10 (0.71–1.70) 0.663
  ≥3 to < 3 5.3 1.34 (0.99–1.79) 1.21 (0.90–1.64) 0.211
  ≥3 to ≥3 6.0 1.52 (1.03–2.22) 1.21 (0.81–1.80) 0.354
Overweight normal to normal 5.0    1   
  normal to overweight 5.6 1.13 (0.67–1.91) 1.06 (0.62–1.81) 0.833
  overweight to normal 5.2 1.04 (0.60–1.82) 0.89 (0.50–1.56) 0.678
  overweight to overweight 2.1 0.41 (0.23–0.75) 0.39 (0.21–0.70) 0.002
Irritability rare to rare 2.5 1   1   
  rare to not rare 4.7 1.91 (1.07–3.42) 1.62 (0.90–2.94) 0.111
  not rare to rare 3.0 1.20 (0.64–2.34) 1.19 (0.62–2.30) 0.597
  not rare to not rare 5.6 2.33 (1.36–3.98) 1.80 (1.03–3.13) 0.039
Unwilling to attend school, rare to rare 3.9 1   1 1  
  rare to not rare 5.3 1.37 (0.98–1.91) 1.08 (0.76–1.52) 0.683
  not rare to rare 3.8 0.96 (0.66–1.40) 0.88 (0.60–1.30) 0.509
  not rare to not rare 7.1 1.86 (1.35–2.56) 1.35 (0.96–1.90) 0.093
Interact with parents, not rare to not rare 4.4 1   1   
  not rare to rare 5.1 1.15 (0.85–1.56) 1.20 (0.88–1.64) 0.254
  rare to not rare 4.3 0.97 (0.63–1.51) 1.04 (0.67–1.62) 0.858
  rare to rare 5.0 1.14 (0.81–1.59) 1.23 (0.87–1.74) 0.247
  1. In multivariate model, sex and frequency of fruits and vegetable at baseline (phase 3) were also adjusted
  2. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval
  3. Variables with a significant relationship to constipation are shown in bold