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Table 1 Characteristics of children at baseline (Phase 3) and follow-up (Phase 4)

From: Lifestyle, psychological stress, and incidence of adolescent constipation: results from the Toyama birth cohort study

  Mean age (SD) Baseline
9.7 (0.29)
Follow-up
12.7 (0.28)
Chi-square test
  n = 5540 % % p
Female (girl)   48.7  
Skipping breakfast 6.3 11.7 < 0.001
Sleep duration < 7 0.3 17.9 < 0.001
(hour) < 8 5.4 45.3  
  < 9 46.4 29.7  
  9 or more 47.9 7.2  
Exercise inactive 23.1 31.9 < 0.001
TV viewing < 2 63.5 52.3 < 0.001
(hour) < 3 25.4 27.2  
  3 or more 11.0 20.5  
Overweight yes 15.1 15.4 0.673
Fruits consumption, daily 37.3 n.a
  3–5 times/week 36.4  
  0–2 times/week 26.3  
Vegetable consumption, daily 63.1 n.a
  3–5 times/week 25.4  
  0–2 times/week 11.5  
Irritability rare 31.7 25.7 < 0.001
  sometime 54.8 53.1  
  often 13.6 21.2  
Unwilling to attend school, rare 64.2 63.2 0.069
  sometime 29.5 27.8  
  often 6.3 9.0  
Interaction with parents, often 26.8 16.4 < 0.001
  sometime 41.4 34.8  
  rare 31.8 48.8  
  1. n.a not applicable