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Table 3 Multivariable adjusted odds ratio for Anemia for mothers 15–49 years, 2005, 2010, and 2015 cycles of demographic health surveys

From: Intersection of HIV and Anemia in women of reproductive age: a 10-year analysis of three Zimbabwe demographic health surveys, 2005–2015

Characteristic 2005 (N = 7417) 2010 (N = 7879) 2015 (N = 8979)
Age-group
 15–19 1.12 (0.91–1.39) 0.89 (0.76–1.03) 1.08 (0.87–1.36)
 20–24 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
 25–29 1.09 (0.90–1.33) 1.00 (0.85–1.17) 1.05 (0.92–1.19)
 30–34 1.23 (0.99–1.52) 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 0.99 (0.81–1.21)
 35–39 1.32 (1.00–1.75) 0.99 (0.86–1.15) 1.08 (0.85–1.38)
 40–44 1.66 (1.28–2.16)* 1.14 (0.91–1.44) 1.05 (0.81–1.36)
 45–49 1.80 (1.35–2.41)*** 1.07 (0.78–1.46) 1.16 (0.83–1.62)
HIV Status
 Positive 2.40 (2.03–2.74) *** 2.35 (1.99–2.77) *** 2.48 (2.18–2.83)***
BMI Level
 < 18 1.16 (0.88–1.53) 0.91 (0.69–1.19) 0.89 (0.71–1.12)
 18- < 25 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
 25- < 30 0.80 (0.70–0.91) 0.75 (0.65–0.88) 0.87 (0.76–1.00)
 > =30 0.68 (0.54–0.86) * 0.61 (0.52–0.72)*** 0.75 (0.65–0.88)*
Wealth Index Quintile
 Poorest 0.93 (0.74–1.18) 1.04 (0.81–1.32) 1.04 (0.74–1.44)
 Poorer 0.75 (0.55–1.03) 1.00 (0.83–1.22) 0.86 (0.65–1.15)
 Middle 0.87 (0.66–1.13) 0.90 (0.72–1.12) 1.01 (0.76–1.35)
 Richer 1.00 (0.83–1.21) 1.02 (0.81–1.28) 1.04 (0.90–1.19)
 Richest 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
Pregnant/breast-feeding 1.31 (1.16–1.47)*** 1.23 (1.09–1.34)*** 1.13 (0.97–1.31)
No iron in pregnancy 1.17 (1.03–1.33)* 1.23 (1.09–1.40) * 1.24 (1.08–1.42)**
Location
 Rural 1.33 (1.08–1.65)* 1.26 (1.03–1.53) * 1.01 (0.79–1.28)
Province
 Manicaland 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent) 1.00 (referent)
 Mashonaland Central 1.36 (1.18–1.57)* 0.68 (0.56–0.81)*** 1.11 (0.92–1.35)
 Mashonaland East 1.11 (0.99–1.23) 0.94 (0.79–1.11) 0.99 (0.75–1.31)*
 Mashonaland West 1.31 (1.11–1.54)* 0.61 (0.53–0.71)*** 1.21 (1.00–1.47)
 Mat. North 1.19 (1.02–1.39)* 0.75 (0.52–1.07) 1.12 (0.93–1.34)
 Matebeleland South 1.86 (1.65–2.10) *** 1.70 (1.34–2.17) *** 2.46 (2.21–2.75)***
 Midlands 1.36 (1.12–1.63)* 0.89 (0.77–1.04) 1.57 (1.40–1.77)***
 Masvingo 2.23 (1.90–2.62)*** 0.63 (0.51–0.77)*** 1.02 (0.88–1.19)
 Harare 0.96 (0.73–1.27) 0.70 (0.60–0.82)** 1.49 (1.21–1.84)*
 Bulawayo 1.10 (0.88–1.36) 1.12 (0.91–1.39) ** 1.48 (1.26–1.74)*
  1. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001