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Table 2 Diet and physical activity for all women in the CARDIA Women’s Study cohort by groupa

From: Associations of diet, physical activity and polycystic ovary syndrome in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Women’s Study

Variable PCOS (n = 40) HA (n = 104) OA (n = 75) Reference (n = 529)
Nutrient
 Energy (kcal /d) 2229.3 ± 879.4 2312.6 ± 981.1 2170.3 ± 925.7 2246.7 ± 912.3
 Total Carbohydrate (g/d) 260.0 ± 108.2 270.7 ± 122.6 258.5 ± 114.9 262.5 ± 111.0
 Fiber (g/d) 4.9 ± 2.3 5.2 ± 3.0 5.1 ± 3.3 5.0 ± 2.8
 Total Protein (g/d) 83.3 ± 29.7 84.7 ± 36.8 78.1 ± 32.4 82.7 ± 35.8
 Total Fat (g/d) 93.3 ± 43.2 97.1 ± 46.7 90.4 ± 45.9 94.2 ± 44.7
 Cholesterol (mg/d) 357.2 ± 178.8 357.7 ± 165.7 325.2 ± 159.2 354.2 ± 207.4
 Total SFAf (g/d) 35.3 ± 18.0 35.5 ± 17.0 33.6 ± 18.3 35.4 ± 17.7
 Total MUFAg (g/d) 34.6 ± 16.8 35.8 ± 18.7 32.6 ± 16.9 34.5 ± 17.3
 Total PUFAh (g/d) 16.6 ± 7.3 18.8 ± 10.3 17.8 ± 12.1 17.5 ± 9.0
 Omega 3 (mg/day) 77.3 ± 93.2 96.3 ± 125.1 77.9 ± 78.3 83.4 ± 129.4
 Vitamin A (IUi/d) 10,450.2 ± 8330.0 10,453.8 ± 8623.8 11,464.6 ± 12,917.5 10,612.7 ± 11,420.3
 Vitamin C (mg/d) 231.6 ± 373.2 292.8 ± 386.7 273.7 ± 452.9 249.1 ± 445.1
 Vitamin D (mcg/d) 7.0 ± 4.1 8.5 ± 6.9 7.0 ± 4.9 7.4 ± 6.7
 Alpha Tocopherol Equivalents (mg/d) 21.1 ± 62.3 21.0 ± 55.2 11.6 ± 9.2 16.6 ± 44.1
 Sodium (mg/d) 3412.6 ± 1561.3 3383.1 ± 1472.6 3265.2 ± 1518.3 3298.8 ± 1530.7
 Calcium (mg/d) 1098.3 ± 520.0 1151.1 ± 830.3 1030.4 ± 509.8 1084.4 ± 673.1
 Phosphorus (mg/d) 1454.2 ± 500.8 1474.2 ± 637.9 1403.3 ± 584.5 1459.7 ± 629.7
 Thiamin (mg/d) 2.0 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 2.8 2.0 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 2.4
 Potassium (mg/d) 3075.7 ± 1148.9 3195.1 ± 1577.9 3048.2 ± 1276.9 3120.1 ± 1361.8
 Riboflavin (mg/d) 2.5 ± 1.0 3.1 ± 2.9 2.4 ± 1.1 2.8 ± 2.5
 Niacin (mg/d) 24.5 ± 8.9 31.2 ± 24.2 24.2 ± 11.0 27.7 ± 23.5
 Iron (mg/d) 20.0 ± 9.2 21.8 ± 16.6 19.0 ± 10.0 21.7 ± 33.0
 Copper (mg/d) 2.5 ± 1.4 3.0 ± 2.0 2.8 ± 1.8 2.7 ± 1.9
 Magnesium (mg/d) 332.2 ± 168.9 356.5 ± 260.8 308.8 ± 126.3 324.2 ± 149.8
 Zinc (mg/d) 14.5 ± 6.3 18.2 ± 12.7 16.4 ± 8.9 16.2 ± 11.7
 Folic Acid (mcg/d) 565.9 ± 1248.4 507.9 ± 773.2 385.6 ± 275.9 470.7 ± 1922.4
 Caffeine (mg/d) 263.1 ± 289.4 279.2 ± 452.2 231.9 ± 320.6 268.2 ± 585.1
AHEI-2010
 Vegetables Score 5.0 ± 2.7 5.0 ± 2.7 5.2 ± 2.8 5.0 ± 2.8
 Fruits Score 3.5 ± 2.2 3.7 ± 2.9 3.5 ± 2.7 3.5 ± 2.5
 Whole Grains Score 3.3 ± 2.0 2.8 ± 2.1 2.9 ± 2.1 3.1 ± 2.3
 SSBj, Fruit Juice Score 2.3 ± 3.1 1.7 ± 2.9 1.9 ± 2.9 1.7 ± 2.9
 Nuts and Legumes Score 4.7 ± 3.4 4.5 ± 3.5 4.1 ± 3.3 4.6 ± 3.5
 Red, Processed Meats Score 4.6 ± 3.1 4.7 ± 3.4 5.2 ± 3.3 5.0 ± 3.1
trans-Fat Score 3.8 ± 0.9 3.8 ± 1.0 3.8 ± 1.2 3.9 ± 1.1
 Long Chain Omega 3 Fats Score 3.0 ± 2.6 3.5 ± 3.0 3.2 ± 2.9 3.1 ± 2.6
 PUFA Score 5.8 ± 1.6 6.2 ± 2.1 6.1 ± 2.2 5.9 ± 2.1
 Sodium Score 5.6 ± 3.0 5.6 ± 3.0 5.9 ± 3.1 5.8 ± 3.0
 Alcohol Score 6.3 ± 2.9 6.2 ± 2.7 5.7 ± 2.8 5.8 ± 3.0
 Total AHEI-2010 Score 47.3 ± 11.6 47.8 ± 12.0 47.5 ± 11.7 47.2 ± 11.6
Physical Activity
 Moderate Exercise Units 137.8 ± 101.9 126.2 ± 100.9 124.9 ± 99.5 126.3 ± 98.5
 Heavy Exercise Units 243.6 ± 175.2 233.8 ± 198.8 252.9 ± 262.6 218.2 ± 191.3
 Total Exercise Units 381.4 ± 217.4 360.0 ± 267.2 377.8 ± 324.8 344.5 ± 257.0
  1. a Data are expressed as mean (SD). CARDIA Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults, HA Isolated Hyperandrogenism (elevated testosterone and/or hirsutism at 2 sites or more), OA Isolated Oligomenorrhea (≥34 days in menstrual cycle), IU, International Units; Reference (neither PCOS nor HA nor OA), MUFA Monounsaturated Fatty Acid, PCOS Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea), PUFA, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid, SFA, Saturated Fatty Acid, SSB Sugar-sweetened Beverages