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Table 3 Social class (income, education, classification of occupation) and health behaviors

From: Social gradient in health-related quality of life among urban middle-age residents in Limassol, Cyprus: research article

  Income Education Classification of occupation
< 1000 1001–1500 1501–2000 2001–2500 3000–5000 > 5000 None
Primary
Secondary-Lower Secondary-Upper Undergraduate Postgraduate Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
Smoking        42.3% 51.8% 55% 68.5% 74.1%     
< 1 pack years of smoking 55.6% 52.1% 64.7% 62.3% 67.5% 54.5% 0% 14.3% 10.5% 13% 7.4% 35.3% 60.2% 50.5% 70.4%
1–25 pack years of smoking 9.5% 12% 7.6% 10.4% 17.5% 15.2% 26.9% 16.1% 19.9% 11.6% 11.1% 17.6% 13% 8.1% 14.1%
> 25 > 50 pack years of smoking 14.3% 20.5% 16% 14.3% 15% 15.2% 30.8% 17.9% 14.7% 6.8% 7.4% 35.3% 17.9% 25.3% 7%
> 50 pack years of smoking 20.6% 15.4% 11.8% 13% 0% 15.2% 0.006      11.8% 8.9% 16.2% 8.5%
p- value 0.36            0.02    
Alcohol consumption        7.7% 3.6% 2.6% 4.1% 0%     
Often or daily 1.6% 3.4% 4.2% 1.3% 5% 6.1% 3.8% 14.3% 10.5% 8.2% 7.4% 0% 4.1% 6.1% 1.4%
1–2 times a week 7.9% 10.3% 12.6% 9.1% 5% 6.1% 23.1% 12.5% 20.9% 30.1% 18.5% 11.8% 12.2% 8.1% 12.7%
2–3 times a month 15.9% 21.4% 26.1% 31.2% 20% 21.2% 30.8% 19.6% 46.1% 44.5% 55.6% 35.3% 24.4% 25.3% 25.4%
Almost once a month 31.7% 33.3% 46.2% 44.2% 50% 54.5% 34.6% 50% 19.9% 13% 18.5% 29.4% 45.5% 45.5% 47.9%
Hardly any or no 42.9% 31.6% 10.9% 14.3% 20% 12.1% < 0.001      23.5% 13.8% 15.2% 12.7%
p- value 0.002            0.85    
Physical activity        69.2% 61.8% 47.4% 39% 40.7%     
Low intensity 69.4% 48.3% 42% 44.2% 35% 51.5% 23.1% 23.6% 31.6% 48.6% 48.1% 47.1% 41.5% 47.5% 38%
Moderate intensity 22.6% 34.5% 39.5% 39% 47.5% 36.4% 7.7% 14.5% 21.1% 12.3% 11.1% 29.4% 37.4% 31.3% 47.9%
Vigorous intensity 8.1% 17.2% 18.5% 16.9% 17.5% 12.1% 0.001      23.5% 21.1% 21.2% 14.1%
p- value 0.07            0.43