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Table 3 Associations between background characteristics and all-cause mortality – results from multivariable Cox regression models; the follow-up begins at baseline in 1991–1996 and ends at an event, death, emigration, or at the latest in the end of 2016

From: Can the validity of a cohort be improved by reweighting based on register data? Evidence from the Swedish MDC study

  Population (n = 71,447) Participants (n = 28,096) RHR Participants, reweighted RHR, weighted analysis
Socio-demographics
 Age
 40–45 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 46–50 1.27 (1.17–1.37) 1.21 (1.04–1.41) 0.95 1.18 (1.01–1.39) 0.93
 51–55 1.95 (1.81–2.10) 2.02 (1.74–2.34) 1.04 1.96 (1.68–2.29) 1.01
 56–60 3.16 (2.93–3.40) 3.41 (2.94–3.95) 1.08 3.37 (2.90–3.92) 1.07
 61–64 4.33 (4.01–4.67) 5.03 (4.34–5.83) 1.16 5.07 (4.36–5.90) 1.17
 65–67 6.51 (6.01–7.05) 7.72 (6.61–9.02) 1.19 7.84 (6.68–9.20) 1.20
 Female 0.56 (0.55–0.58) 0.56 (0.54–0.59) 1.00 0.57 (0.54–0.59) 1.01
 Country of birth
 Sweden 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 Other Nordic 1.03 (0.98–1.09) 1.01 (0.92–1.12) 0.98 1.02 (0.93–1.13) 0.99
 Other EU15 0.80 (0.74–0.86) 0.82 (0.71–0.94) 1.02 0.83 (0.72–0.96) 1.05
 Other EU 0.88 (0.83–0.94) 0.79 (0.68–0.91) 0.90 0.81 (0.69–0.93) 0.92
 Other Europe 0.87 (0.83–0.93) 0.88 (0.73–1.06) 1.00 0.92 (0.76–1.11) 1.03
 Outside Europe 0.79 (0.72–0.85) 0.68 (0.52–0.88) 0.86 0.68 (0.53–0.88) 0.87
 Civil status
 Married 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 Unmarried 1.46 (1.41–1.51) 1.42 (1.32–1.53) 0.98 1.39 (1.29–1.50) 0.95
 Divorced 1.38 (1.34–1.42) 1.32 (1.25–1.39) 0.96 1.32 (1.25–1.40) 0.96
 Widowed 1.31 (1.26–1.37) 1.26 (1.18–1.36) 0.96 1.26 (1.17–1.35) 0.96
 Education
 Primary 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 Short secondary 0.92 (0.89–0.94) 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 1.05 0.96 (0.92–1.01) 1.05
 Long secondary 0.88 (0.85–0.92) 0.94 (0.88–1.00) 1.06 0.93 (0.87–1.00) 1.06
 Tertiary 0.78 (0.75–0.81) 0.84 (0.79–0.89) 1.08 0.84 (0.79–0.90) 1.09
 Employment status
 Employed 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 Unemployed 1.18 (1.12–1.25) 1.10 (0.99–1.22) 0.93 1.11 (1.00–1.23) 0.93
 Sickness absence 1.41 (1.34–1.49) 1.41 (1.28–1.55) 1.00 1.43 (1.29–1.58) 1.01
 Retired 1.61 (1.56–1.67) 1.60 (1.51–1.70) 0.99 1.58 (1.49–1.69) 0.98
 Disposable income
 Quintile 1 1.00 (Ref.) 1.00 (Ref.)   1.00 (Ref.)  
 Quintile 2 0.97 (0.93–1.00) 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 1.04 1.01 (0.94–1.08) 1.04
 Quintile 3 0.88 (0.84–0.91) 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 1.07 0.94 (0.87–1.01) 1.07
 Quintile 4 0.81 (0.78–0.85) 0.92 (0.86–0.99) 1.13 0.93 (0.86–1.00) 1.14
 Quintile 5 0.71 (0.68–0.74) 0.81 (0.75–0.88) 1.14 0.82 (0.75–0.89) 1.16
Disease history
 Circulatory 1.50 (1.45–1.55) 1.46 (1.37–1.55) 0.97 1.48 (1.39–1.58) 0.99
 Diabetes 2.41 (2.23–2.60) 2.68 (2.30–3.13) 1.11 2.66 (2.29–3.08) 1.10
 Neoplasms 1.56 (1.49–1.63) 1.53 (1.42–1.66) 0.98 1.53 (1.40–1.67) 0.98
 Respiratory 1.64 (1.55–1.73) 1.47 (1.32–1.64) 0.90 1.50 (1.33–1.70) 0.92
 Digestive 1.16 (1.12–1.21) 1.15 (1.07–1.23) 0.99 1.14 (1.07–1.23) 0.98
 Mental 1.92 (1.83–2.01) 2.19 (1.96–2.45) 1.14 2.23 (1.95–2.56) 1.16
R2 0.38 0.37   0.38  
  1. The table reports hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals as well as ratios of hazard ratios (RHRs). R2 is the Royston & Sauerbrei R2 statistic for survival data [25]