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Table 3 Distribution of select NCD risk factors among adolescents by global region

From: Non-communicable diseases among adolescents: current status, determinants, interventions and policies

Risk Factor Indicators Sex Regions1 Data Source Year of Data Collection
Americas Europe Eastern and Southern Africa Western and Central Africa Middle East & North Africa Pacific South Asia
Behavioural Risk Factors Prevalence of current adolescent drinkers aged 15–19 (%) [26] Males 54.9 69 38.5 34.5 14.1 25.2 9 WHO 2010
Females 37.7 48.7 25.9 22.2 11.1 15.3 4.3
Prevalence of current smokers of cigarettes aged 13–15 per 100 population (%) [26] Males 17.4 14.5 7.4 7.3 10.2 9.9 5.1 WHO 2008–2010
Females 19.1 9.9 3.2 2 2.4 1.9 2
Prevalence of current tobacco use among adolescents aged 13–15 years (%) [26] Males 17 21.3 12.4 21 WHO 2007–2014
Females 13.8 9.7 3.5 7.4
Prevalence of insufficient physical activity (school-going adolescents 11–17 years) [26] Both Sexes 81.2 83.2 85.2* 87.5 85 73.4 WHO 2010
Males 87.1 87.7 87.9* 91 88.9 74.6
Females 75.3 78.4 82.3* 84.7 81 72.5
Biological Risk Factors Low birthweight (%) [27] Both Sexes 9 6 UNICEF 2011–2016
Nutrition Risk Factors Early initiation of breastfeeding (%) [27] Both Sexes 54 57 63 40 40 43 39 UNICEF 2011–2016
Introduction to solid, semi-solid or soft foods 6–8 months (%) [27] Both Sexes 82 69 75 68 63 69 56 UNICEF 2011–2016
Exclusive breastfeeding (< 6 months, %) [27] Both Sexes 38 30 55 29 32 28 52 UNICEF 2011–2016
Underweight, moderate and severe, under-5 (%) [26] Both Sexes 1.6 17.2* 12.8 2.7 26.2 WHO 2017
Stunting, moderate and severe, under-5 (%) [27] Both Sexes 11 6 34 34 15 9 36 UNICEF 2011–2016
Wasting, moderate and severe, under-5 (%) [27] Both Sexes 1 2 7 9 7 3 16 UNICEF 2011–2016
Overweight, moderate and severe, under-5 (%) [27] Both Sexes 7 13 4 4 11 6 4 UNICEF 2011–2016
Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents, 5–19 years (%) [27] Males 34.6 28.1 20.2 30.4 9.6 UNICEF 2016
Females 32.6 24.2 20.7 18.8 8.1
Obese, under 20 years (%) Males 5 7.4 3.9 4.4 20.7 3.8 2.5 Ng, 2014 2013
Females 4.7 6.3 4 3.2 11 3.5 2.6
Socioeconomic Status Youth literacy rate, aged 15–24 years (%) [27] Males 98 100 87 69 91 99 88 UNICEF 2011–2016
Females 99 99 85 55 88 97 80
Primary school, net attendance ratio (%) [27] Males 96 94 78 72 94 97   UNICEF 2008–2013
Females 96 95 79 68 93 97  
Secondary school, net enrolment ratio (%) [27] Males 74 93 29 74 71 63 UNICEF 2011–2016
Females 77 92 30 74 76 66
Out-of-school rate of children of primary school age (%) [27] Males 5 4 17 6 6 5 UNICEF 2011–2016
Females 4 4 19 8 6 6
Unemployment, youth total (% of total labor force ages 15–24) [28] Both Sexes 18.5 18.5 14.2 28.1 10.3 10.4 World Bank 2017
Child labour (%) [27] Both Sexes 11 26 32 7 UNICEF 2010–2016
Access to Improved Water and Sanitation Improved water, total (% of population with access) [27] Both Sexes 96 95 53 62 93 94 88 UNICEF 2015
Improved sanitation facilities, total (% of population with access) [27] Both Sexes 86 93 30 27 89 77 46 UNICEF 2015
Health Care Services and Essential Commodities/Medicine Skilled birth attendance, aged 15–49 years (%) [27] Both Sexes 96 99 60 52 86 95 73 UNICEF 2013–2016
Measles (MCV immunization on coverage among 1 year olds) (%) [27] Both Sexes 92 93 76 67 89 93 84 UNICEF 2016
DPT3 immunization coverage among 1-year olds (%) [27] Both Sexes 90 90 80 67 88 94 86 UNICEF 2016
Antenatal care coverage (4+ visits) (aged 15–49 years) (%) [27] Females 90 87 52 52 66 74 46 UNICEF 2016
Fertility Rates/Women Empowerment Adolescent birth rate, number of births per 1000 adolescent girls aged 15–19 years [27] Females 74 29 113 130 41 21 44 UNICEF 2009–2014
Percent of women giving birth by age 18 (%) [27] Females 19 4 26 29 8 7 20 UNICEF 2011–2016
Married or in-union women of reproductive age who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods (%) [26] Females 83 75.1 52.2* 63.6 89.7 75.1 WHO 2018
Unmet need for family planning (%) (aged 15–49 years) [26] Females 9.4 10.4 24.4* 17.7 5.8 13.3 WHO 2010
Gender Inequality Percent of women aged 20–24 years who were married by age 15 (%) [27] Females   1 9 14 3 2   UNICEF 2010–2016
Percent of women aged 20–24 years who were married by age 18 (%) [27] Females   11 35 41 17 15   UNICEF 2010–2016
Prevalence of FGM/C (% of girls and women of reproductive age 15–49 years experiencing FGM/C) [27] Females    45 31     UNICEF 2004–2016
Income Inequality GNI per capita (U.S.$) [38]   8200 22,651 1454** 7246 10,170 1743 World Bank 2017
Urbanization % of total population urbanized [27]   80 64 31 45 63 57 33 UNICEF 2016
  1. 1 Regions are based on a combination of the seven UNICEF regions (Southern and Eastern Africa, West and Central Africa, Caribbean, Europe & CIS, North Africa, Pacific, South Asia and Southern Africa) and six WHO regions (Africa, Americas, Europe, Mediterranean, South-East Asia, and Western Pacific) and when necessary data from the World Bank regions (East Asia & Pacific, Europe & Central Asia, Latin America & Caribbean, Middle East & North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia). The amalgamation of regions includes: the Americas (Caribbean UNICEF region, Americas WHO region, Latin America and Caribbean World Bank region), Europe region (Europe & CIS UNICEF region, Europe WHO region and Europe & Central Asia World Bank region), Middle East and North Africa region (Middle East and North Africa UNICEF region, Eastern Mediterranean Region WHO and Middle East & North Africa World Bank region), Pacific region (Western Pacific WHO region, Pacific UNICEF region and East Asia & Pacific World Bank region), Southern and Eastern Africa (Southern and Eastern Africa region UNICEF), Western and Central Africa region (UNICEF) and South Asia region (South Asia UNICEF region, South East Asia WHO region and South Asia World Bank region)
  2. * = Regional estimates are only available for the WHO African region
  3. ** = Regional estimates are only available for World Bank Sub Saharan Africa region
  4. + = Regional estimates were calculated by weighting country estimates with population data from the respective year (e.g. 2010) using the United Nations population prospects database and incorporating those into a combined estimate for the region
  5. - = Regional data unavailable