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Table 1 Sample characteristics by duration of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) (data from the 2014/2015 German Health Update [GEDA] survey on all never-smokers; n = 10,274)

From: Is exposure to secondhand smoke associated with current depression (PHQ-8) among never-smokers? Results from a survey among German adults

  Exposure to SHS p-value
never or almost never (n = 9286) less than 1 h per day (n = 732) 1 h per day or more (n = 256) total (n = 10,274)
n % n % n % n %
Sex
 female 5816 62.6% 351 48.0% 151 59.0% 6318 61.5% < 0.001*
 male 3470 37.4% 381 52.0% 105 41.0% 3956 38.5%
Socioeconomic status
 low 1136 12.2% 138 18.9% 75 29.3% 1349 13.1% < 0.001*
 medium 5046 54.3% 459 62.7% 153 59.8% 5658 55.1%
 high 3104 33.4% 135 18.4% 28 10.9% 3267 31.8%
Partnership status
 with a partner 5439 58.6% 236 32.2% 112 43.8% 5787 56.3% < 0.001*
 without a partner 3847 41.4% 496 67.8% 144 56.3% 4487 43.7%
Place of residence
 Western Germany 7006 75.4% 515 70.4% 191 74.6% 7712 75.1% 0.009*
 Eastern Germany 2280 24.6% 217 29.6% 65 25.4% 2562 24.9%
Degree of urbanization
 district-free city 2753 29.6% 215 29.4% 78 30.5% 3046 29.6% 0.292
 urban district 3441 37.1% 272 37.2% 100 39.1% 3813 37.1%
 rural district with densely populated areas 1475 15.9% 110 15.0% 26 10.2% 1611 15.7%
 sparsely populated rural district 1617 17.4% 135 18.4% 52 20.3% 1804 17.6%
Social support (OSS 3)
 low 1411 15.2% 151 20.6% 42 16.4% 1604 15.6% 0.006*
 moderate 5097 54.9% 402 54.9% 156 60.9% 5655 55.0%
 high 2778 29.9% 179 24.5% 58 22.7% 3015 29.3%
Alcohol consumption
 no regular consumption 5311 57.2% 409 55.9% 163 63.7% 5883 57.3% < 0.001*
 no weekly risky consumption 2984 32.1% 226 30.9% 53 20.7% 3263 31.8%
 risky consumption 991 10.7% 97 13.3% 40 15.6% 1128 11.0%
Body mass index
 < 25 4285 46.1% 331 45.2% 159 62.1% 4775 46.5% < 0.001*
 ≥ 25 5001 53.9% 401 54.8% 97 37.9% 5499 53.5%
Presence of chronic diseases
 yes 3932 42.3% 269 36.7% 117 45.7% 4318 42.0% < 0.001*
 no 5354 57.7% 463 63.3% 139 54.3% 5956 58.0%
Current depression (PHQ-8 ≥ 10)
yes 652 7.0% 75 10.2% 36 14.1% 763 7.4% < 0.001*
no 8634 93.0% 657 89.8% 220 85.9% 9511 92.6%
  1. OSS 3 Oslo Social Support Scale 3, PHQ Patient Health Questionnaire
  2. * significant differences between exposure groups at 5%-level