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Table 5 Association between the PMT constructs and examined allergy management measures

From: Determinants of the utilization of allergy management measures among hay fever sufferers: a theory-based cross-sectional study

  Odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
  Model 1
Medical supervision a
Model 2
Self-managementa
Model 3
Anti-allergic medicationa
Model 4
Specific immunotherapy a
Model 5
Allergen avoidancea
Reference category (Yes a)
 Seriousness 2.12 (1.56–2.89)** 1.04 (0.77–1.41) 0.95 (0.65–1.40) 1.13 (0.81–1.56) 0.72 (0.54–0.96)*†
 Severity 1.35 (1.02–1.81)* 1.60 (1.21–2.11)** 1.65 (1.16–2.35)** 0.83 (0.61–1.13) 2.12 (1.60–2.81)**
 Response efficacy 1.16 (0.83–1.62) 1.00 (0.73–1.38) 1.40 (0.96–2.06) 1.08 (0.78–1.58) 1.04 (0.77–1.42)
 Response costs 1.34 (1.03–1.73) 0.88 (0.67–1.13) 1.09 (0.79–1.51) 1.25 (0.95–1.64) 1.28 (1.00–1.64)
 Self-efficacy 4.52 (3.11–6.56)** 1.37 (0.99–1.90)* 1.52 (1.01–2.28)* 0.97 (0.67–1.32) 1.46 (1.07–1.99)*†
 Allergy experience 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 1.02 (1.00–1.04) 1.04 (1.00–1.07)*† 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 1.01 (0.99–1.03)
 Gender (female) 1.17 (0.79–1.63) 1.44 (1.25–2.26)*† 1.25 (0.96–2.17) 0.70 (0.45–1.11) 1.03 (0.81–1.69)
 Medical supervision a   0.39 (0.25–0.86)** 2.22 (1.48–3.35)* 9.80 (8.16–13.80)** 0.66 (0.44–1.09)
 Self-management a    4.76 (2.67–7.49)** 0.91 (0.59–1.51) 2.56 (1.87–3.52)**
 Anti-allergic medication a     1.26 (0.66–2.40) 1.17 (0.67–1.87)
 Specific immunotherapy a      1.09 (0.67–1.78)
  1. *Significance level p < 0.05, ** Significance level p < 0.01, † not significant due to multiple testing, a Reference category “taking action”
  2. Model 1: R2 = 0.29 (Cox & Snell), 0.37 (Nagelkerke), χ2 (7) 169.74, p < 0.00; Model 2: R2 = 0.25 (Cox & Snell), 0.33 (Nagelkerke), χ2 (8) 168.24, p < 0.00; Model 3: R2 = 0.47 (Cox & Snell), 0.62 (Nagelkerke), χ2 (9) 347.43, p < 0.00; Model 4: R2 = 0.37 (Cox & Snell), 0.49 (Nagelkerke), χ2 (10) 250.47, p < 0.00; Model 5: R2 = 0.21 (Cox & Snell), 0.28 (Nagelkerke), χ2 (11) 121.75, p < 0.00
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