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Table 4 Multi-level models examining association of relative wealth and 1) systolic blood pressure and 2) diastolic blood pressure

From: The prevalence of hypertension and its distribution by sociodemographic factors in Central Mozambique: a cross sectional study

  Systolic blood pressure Diastolic blood pressure
Model 1 p Model 2 p Model 3 p Model 4 p
n = 2190 n = 2185 n = 2190 n = 2185
β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI) β (95% CI)
Rural residence −3.97 (−5.62 to −2.32) < 0.001 −1.48 (− 3.46 to 0.5) 0.144 −4.08 (−5.25 to − 2.9) < 0.001 −1.93 (− 3.33 to −0.53) 0.007
Age
30–39 1.36 (− 0.47 to 3.2) 0.146 1.16 (− 0.67 to 2.99) 0.214 2.87 (1.57 to 4.17) < 0.001 2.69 (1.4 to 3.99) < 0.001
40–49 4.49 (2.17 to 6.8) < 0.001 4.2 (1.89 to 6.51) < 0.001 4.76 (3.12 to 6.41) < 0.001 4.61 (2.98 to 6.25) < 0.001
50–59 10.09 (7.18 to 13) < 0.001 9.88 (6.98 to 12.78) < 0.001 6.08 (4.01 to 8.15) < 0.001 5.87 (3.82 to 7.93) < 0.001
60 and above 17.64 (14.23 to 21.05) < 0.001 17.4 (14 to 20.79) < 0.001 8.82 (6.4 to 11.24) < 0.001 8.62 (6.22 to 11.02) < 0.001
Gender (women) −1.61 (− 3.21 to − 0.01) 0.049 − 2.22 (− 3.83 to − 0.61) 0.007 0.15 (− 0.99 to 1.28) 0.801 −0.41 (− 1.55 to 0.73) 0.482
BMI (kg/m2) 0.69 (0.49 to 0.89) < 0.001 0.61 (0.41 to 0.82) < 0.001 0.49 (0.35 to 0.63) < 0.001 0.42 (0.28 to 0.56) < 0.001
Education
secondary − 0.50 (− 2.27 to 1.28) 0.583 −1.8 (− 3.65 to 0.06) 0.058 1.37 (0.11 to 2.63) 0.034 0.18 (− 1.14 to 1.49) 0.791
above secondary 0.96 (−2.89 to 4.81) 0.626 −0.83 (− 4.75 to 3.1) 0.68 2.96 (0.22 to 5.7) 0.034 1.35 (− 1.42 to 4.13) 0.341
Relative wealth
below average    −1.68 (−3.78 to 0.42) 0.117    −2.43 (−3.92 to − 0.95) 0.001
above average    3.41 (1.09 to 5.72) 0.004    2.33 (0.69 to 3.97) 0.005
  1. All models were adjusted for province as a covariate and accounted for household-level differences in multilevel models
  2. The reference group was: 20–29 year olds for age groups; urban areas for residence; men for gender; the middle quintile (average) for wealth; below secondary for education