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Table 2 Hazard ratios for mortality according to community level social trust or reciprocity

From: Association of community level social trust and reciprocity with mortality: a retrospective cohort study

  Community Level Social Trust Community Level Social Reciprocity
Lower half Upper half Lower half Upper half
Full cohort
 Number of participants 318,525 317,530 317,884 318,061
All-cause mortality
 Events, N 2382 1626 2466 1542
 Person-years 634,190 633,010 633,056 634,144
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.68 (0.64–0.73) 1.00 (reference) 0.62 (0.59–0.67)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.83 (0.78–0.88) 1.00 (reference) 0.79 (0.75–0.85)
Death from cardiovascular disease
 Events, N 265 176 269 172
 Person-years 634,190 633,010 633,056 634,144
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.67 (0.55–0.81) 1.00 (reference) 0.64 (0.53–0.77)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.82 (0.68–0.99) 1.00 (reference) 0.83 (0.68–1.00)
Death from cancer
 Events, N 467 336 477 326
 Person-years 634,190 633,010 633,056 634,144
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.72 (0.63–0.83) 1.00 (reference) 0.68 (0.59–0.79)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.87 (0.76–0.99) 1.00 (reference) 0.86 (0.75–0.99)
Death from other causes
 Events, N 1650 1114 1720 1044
 Person-years 634,190 633,010 633,056 634,144
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.68 (0.63–0.73) 1.00 (reference) 0.61 (0.56–0.65)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.81 (0.76–0.88) 1.00 (reference) 0.77 (0.71–0.83)
Propensity score-matched cohort
 Number of participants 301,990 301,990 292,816 292,816
All-cause mortality
 Events, N 2005 1619 2015 1523
 Person-years 601,533 601,961 583,200 583,708
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.81 (0.76–0.86) 1.00 (reference) 0.76 (0.71–0.81)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.84 (0.78–0.89) 1.00 (reference) 0.80 (0.75–0.86)
Death from cardiovascular disease
 Events, N 223 176 212 172
 Person-years 601,533 601,961 583,200 583,708
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.79 (0.65–0.96) 1.00 (reference) 0.81 (0.66–0.99)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.82 (0.67–0.99) 1.00 (reference) 0.86 (0.70–1.05)
Death from cancer
 Events, N 406 334 385 322
 Person-years 601,533 601,961 583,200 583,708
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.82 (0.71–0.95) 1.00 (reference) 0.84 (0.72–0.97)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.85 (0.73–0.98) 1.00 (reference) 0.87 (0.75–1.01)
Death from other causes
 Events, N 1376 1109 1418 1029
 Person-years 601,533 601,961 583,200 583,708
 Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.81 (0.74–0.87) 1.00 (reference) 0.73 (0.67–0.79)
 Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.83 (0.77–0.90) 1.00 (reference) 0.78 (0.72–0.84)
  1. Model 1: unadjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression
  2. Model 2: adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals calculated by Cox proportional hazards regression after adjustments for age, sex, household income, and Charlson comorbidity index
  3. Acronyms: aHR adjusted hazard ratio, CI confidence interval