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Table 1 Sample characteristics for the total sample, and compared by disability groups

From: The working disadvantaged: the role of age, job tenure and disability in precarious work

  Total No disability Disabilitya P
Mean ± SD/n (%) Mean ± SD/n (%) Mean ± SD/n(%)
Number of participants 1802 901 901  
Sociodemographic factors
 Gender (women) 1011 (56.3) 494 (54.8) 517 (57.8) 0.20
 Age (years)     0.99
  Young adult (18–35) 597 (33.2) 301 (33.4) 296 (33.1)  
  Middle-aged adult (36–50) 600 (33.4) 300 (33.3) 300 (33.5)  
  Older adult (> 50) 599 (33.4) 300 (33.3) 299 (33.4)  
 Marital Status     0.06
  Married/living as married 1018 (56.8) 529 (58.9) 489 (54.7)  
  Widowed/divorced/separated 217 (12.1) 94 (10.5) 123 (13.8)  
  Never married 556 (31.0) 275 (30.6) 281 (31.5)  
 Educational attainment     <.001
  Primary-high school 334 (18.6) 142 (15.8) 192 (21.5)  
  Some post-secondary 148 (27.5) 222 (24.7) 270 (30.2)  
  Graduated post-secondary 965 (53.9) 534 (59.5) 431 (48.3)  
 Income     <.001
  < $50,000 607 (35.8) 260 (30.7) 347 (40.9)  
  $50,000 – $89,999 624 (36.8) 321 (37.9) 303 (35.7)  
  $90,000 ≤ 465 (27.4) 266 (15.7) 199 (23.4)  
Health factors
 Pain (0–10) 2.6 (2.7) 1.4 (1.9) 3.9 (2.8) <.001
 Fatigue (0–10) 3.7 (2.9) 2.3 (2.4) 5.1 (2.8) <.001
 Self-rated health (1–5) 3.0 (1.0) 3.5 (0.9) 2.6 (0.9) <.001
Work characteristics
 Job sector     0.21
  Business/administration 419 (23.4) 220 (24.5) 199 (22.4)  
  Health/science/teaching 609 (34.1) 314 (34.9) 295 (33.1)  
  Sales/service 392 (21.9) 197 (21.9) 195 (21.9)  
  Trades/transportation 369 (20.6) 168 (18.7) 201 (22.6)  
Organization size (#of people)     0.01
  Small (1–50) 437 (25.5) 224 (25.8) 213 (25.2)  
  Medium (51–150) 318 (18.5) 134 (15.4) 184 (21.7)  
  Large (150<) 960 (56.0) 511 (58.8) 449 (53.1)  
 Job tenure (# of years) 9.5 ± 9.0 9.7 ± 9.0 9.4 ± 9.0 0.51
 Perceived work physical demands (1-5) 2.9 ± 1.4 2.7 ± 1.4 3.1 ± 1.4 <.001
 Perceived work mental demands (1-5) 3.6 ± 1.2 3.4 ± 1.2 3.7 ± 1.1 <.001
 Productivity loss (0–10) 2.3 ± 2.9 1.1 ± 2.2 3.6 ± 2.9 <.001
Precarious working conditions
 Precarious work (yes) 527 (29.7) 243 (27.3) 284 (32.1) 0.026
 Contract type
  Permanent contract 1628 (90.9) 819 (91.2) 803 (90.4) .57
  Non-permanent contract 164 (9.1) 79 (8.8) 85 (9.6)  
 Work hours
  Part-time (< 30 h/week) 205 (11.4) 92 (10.2) 112 (12.5) .12
  Full-time (≥ 30 h/week) 1596 (88.6) 808 (89.8) 783 (87.5)  
 Union representation 552 (30.9) 250 (27.9) 302 (33.9) <.001
 Perceived Job control 2.8 ± 1.2 2.9 ± 1.2 2.7 ± 1.2 <.001
  Not at all 308 (17.2) 113 (14.9) 173 (19.5) <.001
  A little 453 (25.3) 213 (23.9) 237 (26.7)  
  Somewhat 481 (26.9) 240 (26.9) 241 (27.1)  
  Quite a bit 359 (20.1) 192 (21.5) 166 (18.7)  
  A great deal 187 (10.6) 115 (12.9) 72 (8.1)  
  1. Notes: SD Standard deviation, n number; aParticipants who reported activity limitations related to a physical, cognitive, mental/emotional, sensory impairment, or other disability