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Table 2 Bivariate Analysis Results: Sociodemographic and household characteristics, family and social support factors, and participants’ psychological wellbeing by age groups

From: Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among high school adolescent girls in southern Uganda

Variable Total Sample
(N = 1260)
Mean (SD)
14–15 years
(n = 718)
Mean (SD)
16–17 years
(n = 542)
Mean (SD)
χ2/t-test
Orphan hood Status (%, n)
 Orphan 17.06 (215) 17.27 (124) 16.79 (91) 0.05
 Non - orphan 82.94 (1045) 82.72 (594) 83.21 (451)  
Primary Caregiver (%, n)
 Biological parent 76.59 (965) 75.91 (545) 77.49 (420) 1.88
 Grandparent 11.11 (140) 10.72 (77) 11.62 (63)  
 Other relative 12.30 (155) 13.37 (96) 10.89 (59)  
Household size
 Number of people in HH (min/max: 2–31) 7.00 (2.71) 6.88 (2.78) 7.16 (6.94) −1.81
 Number of children in HH (min/max: 0–13) 3.49 (2.10) 3.39 (2.01) 3.64 (3.45) −2.02*
 Family assets (min/max: 0–20) 11.46 (3.26) 11.32 (3.29) 11.64 (3.21) −1.71
Family support factors
 Family cohesion (min/max:7–35) 26.58 (5.69) 26.61 (5.73) 26.53 (5.66) 0.25
 Family care and relationship (min/max: 9–30) 24.74 (4.27) 25.28 (4.09) 24.01 (4.41) 5.27***
 Perceived child-caregiver support (min/max: 29–81) 56.85 (6.73) 57.16 (6.72) 56.44 (6.72) 1.85
Social support from multiple sources
 Guardian (min/max: 9–30) 23.66 (4.19) 23.93 (4.12) 23.29 (4.25) 2.67**
 Classmate (min/max: 7–25) 17.78 (3.52) 17.87 (3.55) 17.67 (3.47) 1.01
 Teacher (min/max:10–30) 22.85 (4.23) 23.11 (4.22) 22.49 (4.21) 2.58**
 Friend/peer (min/max: 26–65) 51.63 (7.61) 51.91 (7.51) 51.27 (7.74) 1.48
Psychological wellbeing
 Tennessee Self – Concept (min/max: 44–100) 80.84 (11.98) 81.79 (11.75) 79.58 (12.17) 3.26***
 Beck’s Hopelessness Scale (min/max: 0–16) 4.20 (2.97) 3.96 (2.90) 4.53 (3.04) −3.41***
 Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (min/max: 16–40) 34.00 (4.57) 34.20 (4.53) 33.75 (4.63) 1.62
  1. *p ≤ .05; **p ≤ .01; ***p ≤ .001