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Table 4 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between level of education (years) and non-health-related labor market marginalization among mature aged workers

From: Educational differences in labor market marginalization among mature-aged working men: the contribution of early health behaviors, previous employment histories, and poor mental health

Adjustments ≥15
HR (95%CI)
13–14
HR (95%CI)
12
HR (95%CI)
10–11
HR (95%CI)
≤9
HR (95%CI)
Crude 1.00 1.35 (1.18, 1.55) 1.58 (1.39, 1.80) 2.06 (1.84, 2.31) 1.60 (1.41, 1.80)
Childhood SEP (1960) 1.00 1.41 (1.23, 1.61) 1.65 (1.45, 1.88) 2.19 (1.95, 2.46) 1.74 (1.54, 1.97)
IQ (1969) 1.00 1.32 (1.16, 1.52) 1.49 (1.31, 1.70) 1.82 (1.61, 2.05) 1.32 (1.16, 1.51)
Health behaviors (1969) 1.00 1.34 (1.17, 1.53) 1.53 (1.34, 1.74) 1.94 (1.74, 2.18) 1.49 (1.32, 1.68)
Low emotional control (1969) 1.00 1.36 (1.18, 1.55) 1.58 (1.39, 1.79) 2.03 (1.81, 2.27) 1.55 (1.37, 1.74)
Psychiatric diagnosis (1969) 1.00 1.36 (1.18, 1.55) 1.58 (1.39, 1.79) 2.03 (1.81, 2.27) 1.55 (1.38, 1.75)
Musculoskeletal diagnosis (1969) 1.00 1.35 (1.18, 1.55) 1.58 (1.39, 1.80) 2.06 (1.84, 2.31) 1.60 (1.42, 1.80)
Adjusted for all above 1.00 1.38 (1.21, 1.58) 1.54 (1.35, 1.76) 1.86 (1.64, 2.11) 1.37 (1.19, 1.57)
% reduction of HR   + 9% 7% 18% 39%
Youth unemployment (1969) 1.00 1.34 (1.17, 1.54) 1.56 (1.37, 1.77) 1.96 (1.74, 2.19) 1.49 (1.32, 1.68)
Unemployed in young adulthood (1974–1991) 1.00 1.33 (1.16, 1.52) 1.57 (1.38, 1.78) 1.90 (1.70, 2.13) 1.54 (1.37, 1.74)
Unemployed in middle adulthood (1992–2000) 1.00 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) 1.38 (1.21, 1.56) 1.56 (1.39, 1.75) 1.34 (1.19, 1.51)
Adjusted for all unemployment variables 1.00 1.26 (1.10, 1.44) 1.37 (1.20, 1.57) 1.46 (1.30, 1.64) 1.28 (1.13, 1.44)
% reduction of HR   27% 36% 56% 53%
Long-term sick leave (1990–2000) 1.00 1.33 (1.16, 1.52) 1.51 (1.33, 1.71) 1.92 (1.71, 2.15) 1.47 (1.31, 1.66)
Mental diagnosis (1973–2000) 1.00 1.34 (1.17, 1.54) 1.56 (1.37, 1.78) 1.99 (1.77, 2.22) 1.54 (1.37, 1.74)
Adjusted for all health-related variables 1.00 1.32 (1.16, 1.51) 1.50 (1.32, 1.71) 1.88 (1.68, 2.10) 1.45 (1.28, 1.64)
% reduction of HR   8% 13% 17% 25%
Full model 1.00 1.30 (1.14, 1.49) 1.39 (1.21, 1.59) 1.46 (1.28, 1.65) 1.25 (1.09, 1.43)
% reduction of HR   13% 33% 57% 58%
  1. SEP Socioeconomic position