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Table 3 Crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between level of education (years) and health-related labor market marginalization among mature aged workers

From: Educational differences in labor market marginalization among mature-aged working men: the contribution of early health behaviors, previous employment histories, and poor mental health

Adjustments ≥15
HR (95%CI)
13–14
HR (95%CI)
12
HR (95%CI)
10–11
HR (95%CI)
≤9
HR (95%CI)
Crude 1.00 1.51 (1.36, 1.67) 1.93 (1.75, 2.12) 2.70 (2.48, 2.93) 2.90 (2.66, 3.16)
Childhood SEP (1960) 1.00 1.47 (1.33, 1.63) 1.88 (1.70, 2.07) 2.58 (2.36, 2.81) 2.75 (2.51, 3.00)
IQ (1969) 1.00 1.45 (1.31, 1.61) 1.75 (1.59, 1.93) 2.26 (2.07, 2.47) 2.31 (2.10, 2.53)
Health behaviors (1969) 1.00 1.49 (1.34, 1.64) 1.85 (1.68, 2.04) 2.53 (2.32, 2.75) 2.68 (2.46, 2.93)
Low emotional control (1969) 1.00 1.52 (1.37, 1.68) 1.93 (1.76, 2.12) 2.65 (2.44, 2.88) 2.80 (2.57, 3.06)
Psychiatric diagnosis (1969) 1.00 1.52 (1.37, 1.68) 1.93 (1.75, 2.12) 2.66 (2.44, 2.89) 2.82 (2.59, 3.07)
Musculoskeletal diagnosis (1969) 1.00 1.51 (1.37, 1.67) 1.94 (1.76, 2.13) 2.70 (2.48, 2.94) 2.90 (2.66, 3.16)
Adjusted for all above 1.00 1.42 (1.28, 1.58) 1.69 (1.53, 1.86) 2.09 (1.91, 2.30) 2.07 (1.88, 2.28)
% reduction of HR   17% 26% 35% 44%
Youth unemployment (1969) 1.00 1.51 (1.36, 1.67) 1.92 (1.74, 2.11) 2.63 (2.41, 2.86) 2.80 (2.57, 3.05)
Unemployed in young adulthood (1974–1991) 1.00 1.50 (1.35, 1.66) 1.92 (1.75, 2.12) 2.60 (2.39, 2.83) 2.86 (2.62, 3.11)
Unemployed in middle adulthood (1992–2000) 1.00 1.49 (1.34, 1.65) 1.87 (1.70, 2.06) 2.52 (2.31, 2.74) 2.79 (2.56, 3.04)
Adjusted for all unemployment variables 1.00 1.48 (1.34, 1.64) 1.86 (1.69, 2.05) 2.43 (2.23, 2.64) 2.70 (2.48, 2.95)
% reduction of HR   6% 7% 16% 10%
Long-term sick leave (1990–2000) 1.00 1.41 (1.27, 1.56) 1.62 (1.47, 1.78) 2.10 (1.93, 2.28) 2.21 (2.02, 2.41)
Mental diagnosis (1973–2000) 1.00 1.50 (1.35, 1.66) 1.91 (1.73, 2.10) 2.59 (2.38, 2.82) 2.78 (2.55, 3.03)
Adjusted for all health-related variables 1.00 1.41 (1.27, 1.56) 1.62 (1.47, 1.78) 2.06 (1.90, 2.25) 2.19 (2.00, 2.38)
% reduction of HR   19% 33% 37% 38%
Full model 1.00 1.34 (1.21, 1.48) 1.46 (1.32, 1.62) 1.69 (1.54, 1.85) 1.75 (1.59, 1.93)
% reduction of HR   33% 50% 59% 61%
  1. SEP Socioeconomic position