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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study population, stratified by years of education

From: Educational differences in labor market marginalization among mature-aged working men: the contribution of early health behaviors, previous employment histories, and poor mental health

Total ≥15 n(%) 13–14 n(%) 12 n(%) 10–11 n(%) ≤9 n(%) p-value
7327 (15.6) 6155 (14.8) 6664 (16.0) 11,915 (28.6) 9624 (23.1)
Childhood SEPa
 Unskilled worker 1311 (17.9) 1594 (25.9) 2023 (30.4) 4570 (38.4) 4144 (43.1) < 0.001
 Skilled worker 1039 (14.2) 1265 (20.6) 1481 (22.2) 2998 (25.2) 2162 (22.5)
 Low-level non-manual employee 1083 (14.8) 809 (13.1) 781 (11.7) 1019 (8.6) 586 (6.1)
 Intermediate non-manual employee 2246 (30.7) 1366 (22.2) 1253 (18.8) 1415 (11.9) 739 (7.7)
 High-level non-manual employee 1054 (14.4) 347 (5.6) 361 (5.4) 261 (2.2) 170 (1.8)
 Farmer 473 (6.5) 668 (10.9) 661 (9.9) 1362 (11.4) 1600 (16.6)
 Not classified 121 (1.7) 106 (1.7) 104 (1.6) 290 (2.4) 223 (2.3)
IQb
 High [7–9] 5000 (68.2) 3369 (54.7) 2509 (37.7) 2058 (17.3) 867 (9.0) < 0.001
 Medium [4–6] 2189 (29.9) 2559 (41.6) 3526 (52.9) 7233 (60.7) 5133 (53.3)
 Low [1–3] 130 (1.8) 220 (3.6) 622 (9.3) 2605 (21.9) 3610 (37.5)
 Missing 8 (0.1) 7 (0.1) 7 (0.1) 19 (0.2) 14 (0.2)
Health behaviorsb
 Smoking ≥5 cigarettes/day 2086 (28.5) 2167 (35.2) 2929 (44.0) 6183 (51.9) 5347 (55.6) < 0.001
 Risky use of alcohol 1027 (14.0) 909 (14.8) 1214 (18.2) 2775 (23.3) 2343 (24.4) < 0.001
 BMI ≥25 263 (3.6) 318 (5.2) 393 (5.9) 841 (7.1) 820 (8.5) < 0.001
Low emotional controlb 1753 (23.9) 1428 (23.2) 1616 (24.3) 3539 (29.7) 3294 (34.2) < 0.001
Psychiatric diagnosisb 567 (7.7) 426 (6.9) 532 (8.0) 1360 (11.4) 1336 (13.9) < 0.001
Musculoskeletal diagnosisb 1229 (16.8) 988 (16.1) 1013 (15.2) 1981 (16.6) 1698 (17.6) 0.001
Employment histories
 Youth unemploymentb 205 (2.8) 261 (4.2) 402 (6.0) 1795 (15.1) 1898 (19.7) < 0.001
 Unemployed in young adulthoodc 210 (2.9) 241 (3.9) 231 (3.5) 992 (8.3) 484 (5.0)
 Unemployed in middle adulthoodd 576 (7.9) 642 (10.4) 886 (13.3) 2341 (19.7) 1423 (14.8) < 0.001
Health factors
 Long-term sick leavee 447 (6.5) 607 (9.9) 962 (14.4) 2244 (18.8) 1918 (19.9) < 0.001
 Inpatient-care psychiatric diagnosisf 174 (2.4) 185 (3.0) 227 (3.4) 691 (5.8) 537 (5.6) < 0.001
Outcomeg
 Health-related LMM 670 (9.1) 830 (13.5) 1130 (17.0) 2726 (22.9) 2357 (24.5) < 0.001
 Non-health-related LMM 339 (5.5) 448 (7.3) 564 (8.5) 1295 (10.9) 820 (8.5) < 0.001
  1. SEP Socioeconomic position, BMI Body mass index
  2. aMeasured in 1960
  3. bMeasured during conscription in 1969
  4. cMeasured from 1974 to 1991
  5. dMeasured from 1992 to 2000
  6. eMeasured from 1990 to 2000
  7. fMeasured from 1973 to 2000
  8. gMeasured between 2001 and 2008