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Table 5 Influence of Household Characteristics on Likelihood of Belonging to Different Shopping Trip Patterns (Clusters)

From: Beyond the supermarket: analyzing household shopping trip patterns that include food at home and away from home retailers

AME
(LSE)
Superstore (SS)
(LSE)
Supermarket (SM)
(LSE)
Mix(M)
(LSE)
Income Constraint Variables
 Monthly Income (in $10,000) −0.0494 (0.0378) − 0.0519* (0.0218) 0.1012* (0.0426)
 Healthy Food too Costly (%) 0.0110 (0.0249) −0.0003 (0.0169) −0.0107 (0.0298)
Time Constraint Variables
 Percentage of Adults Working −0.0001 (0.0002) −0.0004 (0.0002) 0.0004 (0.0003)
 Presence of Child −0.113 (0.0195) −0.0407* (0.0172) 0.0520* (0.0247)
 Not Enough Time to Prepare Healthy Meals −0.062 (0.0233) −0.0688* (0.0269) 0.1050*** (0.0264)
Food Environment Variables
 Superstore Availability 0.0297*** (0.0065) −0.0252** (0.0079) −0.0044 (0.0094)
 Supermarket Availability −0.0235** (0.0088) 0.0160** (0.0054) 0.0075 (0.0070)
 Fast-Food Restaurant Availability −0.0015 (0.0009) 0.0006 (0.0010) 0.0010 (0.0012)
 Restaurant Availability 0.0001 (0.0002) 0.00004 (0.0002) −0.0002 (0.0002)
Taste Preference Variables
 Healthy Food Does Not Taste Good −0.0280 (0.0272) −0.0769*** (0.0191) 0.1049** (0.0305)
 Midwest 0.1352** (0.0487) −0.1068 (0.0568) −0.0284 (0.0364)
 South 0.0884* (0.0366) 0.0291 (0.0401) −0.1175** (0.0385)
 West 0.0397 (0.0378) 0.0592 (0.0310) −0.0989* (0.0470)
  1. Covariates included in the regression but not reported include access to a vehicle, rural indicator, and primary respondent age, sex, race, self-reported education. Full results are available in Additional file 1. Household income is measured as the monthly income in U.S. dollars. Percentage of working adults measured the percentages of all adults in the household that are currently working. Food environment variables measured the count of a specific retailer type within 1-mile radius of households in urban areas, and 10-mile radius of households in rural areas. Binary variables that measure attitudes towards healthy food (healthy food too costly, not enough time to prepare healthy meals, healthy food does not taste good) are measured using the primary respondents’ affirmative responses to these statements
  2. Mix Cluster in which no single retailer type dominated shopping trip patterns
  3. AME Average marginal effect
  4. LSE Linearized standard error
  5. * = p < 0.05 ** = p < 0.01 *** = p < 0.001