Skip to main content

Table 1 Under-five mortality rate (per 1000 live births), 5 year periods preceding the survey and unadjusted odds ratio by explanatory variables (n = 7782, weighted)

From: Proximate, intermediate, and distal predictors of under-five mortality in Chad: analysis of the 2014–15 Chad demographic and health survey data

Determinants Frequency
(n)
Percentage
(%)
Under-five mortality rate [95% CI] UOR [95% CI]
Region
 Betha 299 3.8 121 [84–158] 2.62* (1.14–6.01)
 Borkou/Tibesti 30 0.4 99 [59–139] 3.85** (1.68–8.79)
 FChari baguirmi 395 5.1 171 [140–203] 3.69*** (1.74–7.80)
 Guera 468 6.0 113 [79–147] 1.53 (0.65–3.62)
 Hadjer-lamis 622 8.0 103 [88–178] 2.91** (1.35–6.23)
 Kanem 320 4.1 86 [56–116] 1.75 (0.76–4.00)
 Lac 417 5.4 101 [80–122] 1.93 (0.85–4.39)
 Logone occidental 462 5.9 179 [159–198] 2.38* (1.06–5.37)
 Lagone oriental 704 9.1 187 [151–223] 3.67*** (1.70–7.91)
 Mandoul 539 6.9 131 [109–153] 2.47* (1.11–5.49)
 Mayo kebbi est 612 7.9 143 [115–171] 1.92 (0.85–4.32)
 Mayo kebbi oust 445 5.7 123 [96–151] 0.91 (0.36–2.25)
 Moyen chari 388 5.0 139 [111–168] 2.30* (1.00–5.28)
 Ouaddai 435 5.6 101 [73–130] 1.89 (0.81–4.42)
 Salamat 163 2.1 133 [104–161] 1.00 (0.38–2.62)
 Tandjile 541 6.9 171 [144–200] 2.90** (1.34–6.30)
 Wadi fira 218 2.8 53 [40–66] 1
 N’djamena 441 5.7 133 [107–160] 2.43* (1.10–5.34)
 Barh el gazel 106 1.4 67 [48–86] 1.23 (0.49–3.06)
 Ennedi 35 0.5 91 [61–120] 1.68 (0.69–4.10)
 Sila 142 1.8 84 [60–109] 2.06 (0.87–4.89)
Place of residence
 Urban 1439 18.5 132 [112–152] 1
 Rural 6343 81.5 133 [124–142] 0.78 (0.61–1.00)
Wealth index
 Poorest 1584 20.4 137 [116–155] 1.35 (0.97–1.88)
 Poorer 1713 22.0 144 [128–160] 1.18 (0.85–1.64)
 Middle 1629 20.9 122 [107–137] 0.92 (0.65–1.30)
 Richer 1597 20.5 121 [108–135] 1
 Richest 1260 16.2 123 [110–149] 1.50* (1.08–2.09)
Ethnicity
 Gorane 109 1.4 90 [69–110] 3.89* (1.20–12.66)
 Arab 463 6.0 104 [82–125] 3.29* (1.00–10.83)
 Baguirmi/Barma 833 10.7 232 [151–313] 11.28*** (3.02–42.07)
 Kanembou/Bornou 80 1.0 112 [92–132] 3.82* (1.17–12.48)
 Boulala/Medego 781 10.0 133 [97–169] 4.67* (1.32–16.61)
 Ouadai/Maba 275 3.5 106 [82–131] 2.86 (0.85–9.67)
 Zaghawa/Bideyat 631 8.1 56 [27–85] 1
 Dadajo/Kibet 75 1.0 134 [103–166] 4.66* (1.36–16.00)
 Bidio/Migami 212 2.7 138 [107–170] 4.29* (1.16–18.80)
 Mounding 218 2.8 77 [56–97] 1.14 (0.23–5.73)
 Massa/Mousseye 203 2.6 140 [101–178] 4.03* (1.15–14.19)
 Toupouri/Kera 403 5.2 112 [76–148] 1.24 (0.20–7.50)
 Sara 179 2.3 162 [143–181] 5.42** (1.70–17.26)
 Peul/Foulbe 2169 27.9 143 [113–175] 6.20*** (1.76–21.88)
 Tema/Assongori 195 2.5 63 [34–91] 2.74 (0.68–11.12)
 Gabri/Kabalaye 123 1.6 184 [127–242] 7.40** (1.92–28.52)
 Marba/Lele 362 4.6 148 [98–198] 4.03* (1.12–14.47)
 Mesmedje/massalat 66 0.9 94 [24–164] 5.88* (1.28–27.02)
 Karo/Xime 116 1.5 186 [135–236] 2.61 (0.58–11.86)
 Achit/banda/kim 289 3.7 141 [111–170] 3.53 (0.98–12.65)
Religion
 Christianity 3307 42.5 157 [141–172] 1.26* (1.01–1.57)
 Islam 4208 54.1 113 [102–123] 1
 Others 268 3.4 124 [92–155] 0.64 (0.30–1.38)
Educational level of mother
 No education 5137 66.0 124 [114–134] 1.20 (0.80–1.80)
 Primary 1777 22.8 159 [135–182] 1.44 (0.92–2.25)
 Secondary /Higher 868 11.2 111 [86–135] 1
Educational level of partner
 No education 4494 57.7 124 [112–137] 0.85 (0.65–1.11)
 Primary 1514 13.5 156 [140–172] 0.98 (0.69–1.38)
 Secondary /Higher 1774 22.8 126 [108–144] 1
Mother’s occupation
 Not working 3733 48.0 117 [104–129] 1.50 (0.21–11.05)
 Official 50 0.6 107 [8–205] 1
 Sales and services 2624 33.7 154 [141–167] 2.04 (0.28–15.01)
 Agricultural 1271 16.3 126 [107–145] 1.44 (0.19–10.75)
 Manual 104 1.3 108 [50–166] 2.67 (0.32–22.01)
Partner's occupation
 Official 455 5.8 94 [68–121] 1
 Sales and services 1645 21.1 117 [102–132] 1.11 (0.67–1.84)
 Agricultural 4942 63.5 135 [125–147] 0.98 (0.61–1.59)
 Manual 740 9.5 152 [129–176] 1.31 (0.75–2.30)
Size of child at birth
 Very large 1605 20.6 110 [87–133] 1
 Larger than average 2182 28.1 128 [112–144] 1.04 (0.75–1.45)
 Average 2045 26.3 135 [116–154] 1.04 (0.75–1.44)
 Smaller than average 959 12.3 134 [115–165] 1.04 (0.70–1.53)
 Very small 990 12.7 160 [120–200] 1.06 (0.73–1.53)
Sex of the child
 Male 3974 51.1 140 [130–150] 1.32* (1.07–1.64)
 Female 3808 48.9 120 [112–128] 1
Birth rank and birth interval
 First birth rank 1180 15.1 134 [117–151] 1.64** (1.18–2.28)
 2–3 birth rank & = < 2 years of birth interval 693 8.9 141 [123–160] 1.18 (0.77–1.79)
 > = 4 birth rank & > 2 years of birth interval 4050 52.1 102 [91–113] 1.11 (0.84–1.46)
 > = 4 birth rank & = < 2 years of birth interval 1859 23.9 110 [95–125] 1
Age of mother at childbirth
 < 20 years 5784 74.3 133 [125–141] 1.17 (0.92–1.50)
 More than 20 years 1998 25.7 122 [108–137] 1
Antenatal care visit
 No 2875 36.9 120 [85–154] 1.05 (0.85–1.30)
 Yes 4907 63.1 91 [74–107] 1
Place of delivery
 Home 6056 77.8 132 [119–144] 1
 Health facility 1726 22.2 127 [104–149] 1.38* (1.08–1.76)
Delivery assistance
 By TBA/Others 4887 62.8 129 [120–138] 0.71** (0.57–0.87)
 By SBA/Health professional 2895 37.2 131 [114–149] 1
 National total 7782 130 [122–138]  
  1. Source: Authors’ computation from the 2014–15 Chad DHS data
  2. COR crude Odds Ratio, CI Confidence Interval, TBA Traditional birth attendants, SBA Skilled birth attendants
  3. * p<0.05, ** p<0.01, *** p<0.001
\