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Table 3 Multilevel logistic regression of individual and contextual factors associated with disposal of children’s faeces in Papua New Guinea

From: Individual and contextual factors associated with disposal of children’s stools in Papua New Guinea: evidence from the 2016–2018 demographic and health survey

Variable Model I Model II
AOR [95% CI]
Model III
AOR [95% CI]
Model IV
AOR [95% CI]
Fixed effects results
Individual level factors
Child’s age
 < 12 months 1.67***[1.25,2.23]   1.71***[1.28,2.29]
 12-23 months 0.84[0.63,1.12]   0.84[0.63,1.13]
 24+ months 1   1
Mother’s age
 15–19 1   1
 20–24 2.59*[1.25,5.37]   2.58*[1.24,5.37]
 25–29 1.97[0.95,4.08]   1.94[0.93,4.03]
 30–34 1.45[0.70,3.01]   1.43[0.68,2.98]
 35–39 2.37*[1.10,5.08]   2.34*[1.09,5.04]
 40+ 2.74*[1.19,6.27]   2.51*[1.09,5.79]
Mothers educational level
 No education 1.590*[1.02,2.48]   1.466[0.93,2.30]
 Primary 1.457*[1.05,2.03]   1.344[0.96,1.89]
 Secondary or higher 1   1
Visit to health facility for child diarrhea
 Yes 1.62**[1.20,2.18]   1.69***[1.25,2.28]
 No 1   1
Residence
 Rural 0.75[0.39,1.42] 0.73[0.37,1.44]
 Urban 1 1
Region
 Southern 4.94***[2.21,11.06] 4.82***[2.08,11.18]
 Highlands 2.97**[1.34,6.58] 3.04**[1.32,6.99]
 Momase 2.43*[1.04,5.69] 2.39[0.98,5.83]
 Islands 1 1
Sex of household head
 Male 1.77**[1.19,2.64] 1.79**[1.19,2.70]
 Female Reference Reference
Type of toilet facility
 Unimproved 1.94***[1.39,2.70] 1.96***[1.39,2.76]
 Improved 1 1
Source of drinking water
 Unimproved 0.58*[0.38,0.88] 0.54**[0.35,0.83]
 Improved 1 1
Random effects results
Parameters
 Variance PSU 0.7088 0.76 0.35 0.400
 Variance region 3.250 3.299 3.190 3.28
 AIC 2546.1 2514.9 2516.3 2485.1
 ICC PSU 0.098 0.103 0.051 0.057
 ICC Region 0.546 0.552 0.519 0.528
 Log-likelihood − 1270.0 − 1244.4 − 1248.1 −1222.5
 LR Test 354.5 (p < 0.001) 350.4 (p < 0.001) 283.9 (p < 0.001) 282.8 (p < 0.001)
 Number of clusters 597 597 597 597
 N 2095 2095 2095 2095
  1. Exponentiated coefficients; 95% confidence intervals in brackets
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001, 1 = Reference category
  3. ICC Intra-Class Correlation, AIC Akaike’s Information Criterion, PSU primary sampling units
  4. Model 1 is the null model, a baseline model without any determinant variable;
  5. Model II = individual level variables
  6. Model III = Contextual Factors
  7. Model III = Individual and Contextual Factors