Skip to main content

Table 2 Details of PRA tools to be used, participants and data to collected using them

From: A mixed-methods community-based participatory research to explore stakeholder’s perspectives and to quantify the effect of crop residue burning on air and human health in Central India: study protocol

Tool Information to be collected using it Participant groups
Objective 1 of sub-study 2:
Qualitative Research Methods:
 FGD To explore participants’ views regarding CRB, its adverse consequences, and their reasons for continuing CRB. Village residents
 KII To elicit stakeholders’ perspectives about CRB and its effects specific to their area of expertise (for example, local health care providers will be asked to describe effects of CRB on the health profile of village residents, etc.) Stakeholders indirectly involved with CRB
PRA tools:
 Trend Analysis [56] To understand the historical chronology of crop residue management practices adopted by the villagers with a special focus on CRB and to generate discussions regarding any perceived association between the health status of villagers and the onset of CRB. Elderly farmers
 Seasonal Analysis [57] To explore the association of perceived air quality and health concerns with CRB season Adults with chronic respiratory diseases, Mothers with young children, Health care workers residing in the village.
 Scoring Method [58] To understand the community’s perception regarding air quality concerns (including CRB) and related health consequences in the village Male and female adults according to residential proximity to farmland
Objective 2 of sub-study2:
Qualitative Research Methods:
 FGD To explore participants’ opinions and concerns/ perceived barriers to adopting an alternative crop residue management practice and their level of interest in supporting or opposing an intervention aimed at changing the current crop residue management practice. Village residents
 KII To discuss their perspectives about potential barriers and opportunities along with their level of interest in supporting the implementation of an intervention aimed at promoting the adoption of healthy crop residue management techniques. Stakeholders indirectly involved with CRB
PRA tools:
 Resource Mapping [57] To identify the potential resources in the village that can influence the planning of an alternative crop residue management practice. For example, participants will be asked to depict the way their village looks like while focussing on the various resources pertinent to farming such as the spatial distribution of farmlands, water reservoirs, storage spaces, dairy farms (if any), etc. Village leaders, self-help groups e.g. agriculture groups
 Social Mapping [57] To explore the habitation pattern in the village especially concerning the farms to understand the probable effect of CRB on human health
To understand the social infrastructure and the inherent hierarchy in the village community which can have a bearing on the individual decision-making process of the villagers and thus on the acceptance of an intervention
Male and female representatives from different social categories e.g. castes
 Wealth Ranking [58] To understand the local perceptions regarding wealth distribution in the village and thus the economic hierarchy in the village community which can have a bearing on the individual decision-making process of the villagers and thus on the acceptance of an intervention Male and female representatives from different socioeconomic categories e.g. landowners vs landless labourers
  1. Abbreviations: CRB Crop Residue Burning, FGD Focus Group Discussion, KII Key Informant Interview, PRA Participatory Rural Appraisal