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Table 2 Group differences and time effect of components of lifestyles sustainability among gardeners and non-gardenersa

From: Improving lifestyles sustainability through community gardening: results and lessons learnt from the JArDinS quasi-experimental study

Sustainability components, means (SD)b Modelc Gardeners (n = 66) Non-gardeners (n = 66) Group P-value Time P-value Group* Time P-value
  t0 t1 t0 t1    
 Social/Health dimension 
Healthiness of household’s food supplyd,e
 Fruit & Vegetablesf (g/d/p) B 402.4 (238.2) 400.0 (231.2) 433.6 (285.4) 445.6 (304.5) 0.241 0.637 0.999
 MAR (% adequacy/2000 kcal) B 76.5 (7.3) 75.8 (8.1) 76.3 (7.1) 76.9 (6.5) 0.679 0.936 0.356
 MER (% excess/2000 kcal) B 96.6 (19.5) 96.1 (23.4) 100.2 (25.3) 98.8 (29.7) 0.617 0.705 0.844
 HPI [range: 0–15] B 8.7 (2.1) 9.0 (2.1) 9.0 (2.3) 9.1 (1.9) 0.218 0.282 0.604
Physical activityg
 PAEE (kJ/kg/d) A 43.2 (13.8) 40.3 (12.3) 41.9 (12.4) 39.9 (13.5) 0.489 0.027 0.664
 Inactivity (h/d) A 9.4 (1.4) 9.9 (1.5) 9.4 (1.5) 9.8 (1.4) 0.333 < 0.0001 0.995
 Low-intensity activity (h/d) A 2.8 (0.8) 2.7 (0.9) 2.8 (1.0) 2.6 (0.8) 0.792 0.003 0.544
 Moderate-to-vigorous intensity activity (h/d) A 1.9 (0.9) 1.6 (0.7) 1.8 (0.7) 1.7 (0.8) 0.555 < 0.001 0.362
 BMI (kg/m2) D 22.6 (3.1) 22.8 (3.1) 23.8 (4.0) 23.9 (4.1) 0.111 0.038 0.679
 WEMWBS [range: 14–70] C 51.1 (6.7) 51.5 (6.9) 51.8 (6.7) 51.5 (5.7) 0.406 0.899 0.546
 UCLA Loneliness Scale [range: 20–80] C 42.1 (10.4) 40.1 (10.9) 40.1 (9.8) 40.5 (9.5) 0.727 0.570 0.227
Environmental dimension
 High sensitivity to food waste, n (%) C 30 (45.5) 40 (60.6) 27 (40.9) 30 (45.5) 0.274 0.018 0.214
 Nature Relatedness Scale [range: 1–5] C 4.1 (0.5) 4.1 (0.5) 3.9 (0.5) 4.0 (0.5) 0.060 0.198 0.395
Environmental impact of household’s food supplyd,e
 GHGE (in g CO2eq/2000 kcal)f B 3099 (997) 3151 (1131) 3294 (886) 3240 (889) 0.382 0.836 0.678
 Atmospheric acidification (in g SO2eq/2000 kcal)f B 33.1 (12.2) 33.3 (12.0) 37.6 (15.0) 35.4 (12.1) 0.256 0.398 0.373
 Marine eutrophication (in g Neq/2000 kcal)f B 11.9 (3) 12.5 (3.9) 13.3 (3.5) 13 (3.9) 0.124 0.972 0.271
 Animal proteins (in % of total proteins) B 56.9 (16.1) 56.4 (17.4) 61.8 (15.4) 59.1 (15.6) 0.368 0.091 0.245
Economic dimension
 Household food expenditure (€/d/p)d,e B 7.0 (3.1) 6.7 (3.2) 6.8 (3.3) 6.8 (3.2) 0.841 0.682 0.630
Expenditure share by food groups (%)d,e
 Fruits & Vegetables B 26.5 (11.1) 27.0 (10.4) 26.6 (12.3) 29.4 (15.6) 0.258 0.100 0.237
 Starches B 10.1 (5.2) 10.6 (5.1) 9.2 (4.7) 8.8 (4.5) 0.177 0.836 0.228
 Meat, fish & Eggs B 18.8 (9.5) 18.7 (10.2) 20.2 (9.2) 20.2 (10.9) 0.507 0.908 0.901
 Dairy products B 11.8 (5.1) 11.5 (4.8) 11.3 (4.4) 11.2 (5.2) 0.495 0.669 0.825
 Mixed dishesf B 8.9 (6.2) 8.4 (6.1) 8.3 (6.1) 8.9 (8.2) 0.098 0.496 0.998
 Sweet products B 10.4 (5.5) 11.7 (8.2) 11.1 (5.6) 10.1 (6.0) 0.853 0.855 0.078
 Added fats & seasoningsf B 4.4 (3.0) 4.9 (2.8) 3.5 (2.6) 3.6 (2.6) 0.003 0.507 0.216
 Beveragesf B 9.5 (6.2) 8.4 (5.8) 10.1 (7.4) 8.1 (6.1) 0.745 0.021 0.240
  1. a Abbreviations: GHGE GreenHouse Gas Emissions, HPI Healthy Purchase Index, MAR Mean Adequacy ratio, MER Mean Excess Ratio, PAEE Physical activity energy expenditure, WEMBWS The Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale
  2. b Unless specified
  3. c Model A was adjusted on BMI and education level. Model B = Model A + percentage of meals consumed outside of the home. Model C = Model A + social desirability scale. Model D was adjusted on education level, percentage of meals consumed outside of the home and social desirability scale
  4. d Variable measured at the household level and not at the individual one
  5. e Including produce from the garden and foods from gifts or food aid. For food expenditure variables, a mean price was attributed to these foods (see Method section)
  6. f Variable was log-transformed to improve normality
  7. g Participants with less than 3 valid days (≥ 10 h of wearing the accelerometer wearing during daytime) were excluded from the analysis resulting in 65 gardeners and 65 controls at t0, and 64 gardeners and 62 controls at t1