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Table 3 Cross-sectional and prospective associations between racial discrimination and health outcomes

From: Racial discrimination and health: a prospective study of ethnic minorities in the United Kingdom

  Wave 1 Wave 3
No racial discrimination Racial discrimination No racial discrimination Racial discrimination
Mental health outcomes
 Psychological distress
 Coeff. [95%CI] Ref 1.11 [0.88; 1.34]*** Ref 0.52 [0.20; 0.85]**
 Mental functioning
 Coeff. [95%CI] Ref −3.61 [−4.29; −2.93]*** Ref −1.77 [− 2.70; −0.83]***
 Life satisfaction
 Coeff. [95%CI] Ref − 0.40 [− 0.52; − 0.27]*** Ref − 0.15 [− 0.32; 0.03]
Impairment outcome
 Limiting longstanding illness
 OR [95%CI] 1.00 (Ref) 1.78 [1.49; 2.13]*** 1.00 (Ref) 1.31 [1.01; 1.69]*
Physical health outcomes
 Physical functioning
 Coeff. [95%CI] Ref −0.86 [−1.50; − 0.27]** Ref − 0.45 [− 1.29; 0.39]
 Self-rated health
 OR [95%CI] 1.00 (Ref) 1.50 [1.24; 1.82]*** 1.00 (Ref) 1.30 [1.00; 1.69]*
  1. All analyses are adjusted for age, sex, household income, education and ethnicity. Prospective analyses are additionally adjusted for baseline status/score
  2. Coeff unstandardized B coefficient, CI confidence interval; OR odds ratio
  3. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001