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Table 2 Characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to the trauma center following violence-related injuries

From: Violence –related injuries in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern country: a retrospective study from a level 1 trauma center

  Overalla Interpersonal (76.7%) Self-inflicted (23.3%) P-value
Age; mean ± SD 30.8 ± 11.1 30.7 ± 11.5 30.4 ± 8.9 0.004
Males; n (%) 595 (90.4) 446 (95.3) 102 (71.8) 0.001
Type of trauma; n (%)
 • Blunt 331 (50.5) 229 (48.9) 76 (53.5) 0.003
 • Penetrating 324 (49.5) 239 (51.1) 63 (44.4)
GCS; mean ± SD
 • ED 13.63 ± 3.0 13.45 ± 3.8 13.29 ± 4.10 0.001
 • After 1 h 13.29 ± 3.9 12.4 ± 4.67 11.96 ± 5.06 0.001
BAC Positive; n (%) 143 (23.4) 116 (24.8) 17 (12.0) 0.001
BAC; mean ± SD 36.9 ± 17.0 36.3 ± 16.9 37.8 ± 16.8 0.75
Injury at body sites; n (%)
 • Head 177 (26.9) 141 (30.1) 21 (14.8) 0.001
 • Face 86 (13.1) 60 (12.8) 11 (7.7) 0.063
 • Neck 48 (7.3) 21 (4.5) 27 (19.0) 0.001
 • Chest 137 (20.8) 108 (23.1) 22 (15.5) 0.053
 • Abdomen 161 (24.5) 116 (24.8) 36 (25.4) 0.891
 • Spine 53 (8.1) 27 (5.8) 26 (18.3) 0.001
 • Arm 59 (9.0) 40 (8.5) 15 (10.6) 0.462
 • Pelvis 39 (5.9) 19 (4.1) 21 (14.8) 0.001
 • Leg 57 (8.7) 33 (7.1) 23 (16.2) 0.001
 • External 433 (65.8) 321 (68.6) 84 (59.2) 0.037
AIS; mean ± SD
 • Head 3.4 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 1.1 4.3 ± 2.2 0.008
 • Face 1.8 ± 0.4 1.8 ± 0.5 1.9 ± 0.6 0.371
 • Neck 2.4 ± 1.2 2.6 ± 1.8 2.7 ± 1.8 0.799
 • Chest 2.7 ± 0.9 3.0 ± 1.6 2.9 ± 1.6 0.847
 • Abdomen 2.3 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 1.6 2.2 ± 0.7 0.050
 • Spine 2.3 ± 0.9 2.4 ± 1.0 2.2 ± 0.7 0.498
 • Arm 1.9 ± 0.6 1.9 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.5 0.564
 • Pelvis 2.2 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 1.7 2.4 ± 0.7 0.864
 • Leg 2.2 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 1.3 2.2 ± 0.4 0.571
 • External 1.1 ± 0.5 1.2 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.9 0.208
ISS; median (range) 9 (1–75) 9 (1–75) 5 (1–75) 0.05
Management; n (%)
 • Intubation 158 (24.0) 106 (22.6) 48 (33.8) 0.007
 • Exploratory Laparotomy 122 (18.5) 86 (18.4) 29 (20.4) 0.585
 • Thoracotomy 12 (1.8) 10 (2.1) 0 0.079
 • Chest tube insertion 82 (12.5) 66 (14.1) 12 (8.5) 0.077
 • Craniotomy/Craniectomy 23 (3.5) 21 (4.5) 2 (1.4) 0.092
 • ORIF surgery 39 (5.9) 24 (5.1) 11 (7.7) 0.240
 • Psychiatric referrals; n (%) 133 (20.2) 25 (5.3) 101 (71.1) 0.001
 • ICU LOS; median (range) 3 (1–142) 3 (1–123) 4 (1–142) 0.451
 • Hospital LOS; median (range) 4 (1–142) 3 (1–1032) 4 (0–142) 0.520
Mortality 42 (6.4) 26 (5.6) 13 (9.2) 0.125
  1. AIS abbreviated injury score, BAC blood alcohol concentration, LOS length of stay, ORIF open reduction and internal fixation, ISS injury severity score
  2. aType of violence was not documented in 48 cases (excluded)