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Table 3 Analysis of Risk Factors for Preeclampsia in the First and Second Trimester of Pregnancy

From: Association of Ambient air Pollution with risk of preeclampsia during pregnancy: a retrospective cohort study

EC N (PE/Total) Unadjusted Model Adjusted Model
OR (95% CI) P AOR (95% CI) P
PM2.5
 Trimester 1 1.027 (1.018–1.037) < 0.001 1.014 (1.000–1.028) 0.005
  Q 1 553/28225 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 856/29721 1.541 (1.381–1.719) < 0.001 1.254 (1.120–1.405) < 0.001
  Q 3 786/29102 1.442 (1.290–1.612) < 0.001 1.225 (1.081–1.388) 0.001
  Q 4 813/28994 1.499 (1.342–1.647) <  0.001 1.235 (1.064–1.434) 0.006
 Trimester 2 1.034 (1.024–1.043) < 0.001 1.026 (1.012–1.049) < 0.001
  Q 1 570/ 29,262 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 814/ 29,033 1.452 (1.303–1.618) < 0.001 1.173 (1.038–1.325) 0.010
  Q 3 773/ 28,830 1.387 (1.243–1.547) < 0.001 1.179 (1.039–1.338) 0.011
  Q 4 831/ 28,917 1.489 (1.337–1.659) < 0.001 1.324 (1.142–1.535) < 0.001
PM10
 Trimester 1   1.021 (1.014–1.028) < 0.001 1.013 (1.002–1.023) 0.021
  Q 1 550/29364 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 781/28742 1.463 (1.310–1.634) < 0.001 1.269 (1.131–1.423) < 0.001
  Q 3 862/29440 1.580 (1.418–1.761) < 0.001 1.401 (1.231–1.594) < 0.001
  Q 4 795/28496 1.504 (1.347–1.678) <  0.001 1.429 (1.228–1.664) < 0.001
 Trimester 2   1.024 (1.017–1.031) < 0.001 1.016 (1.005–1.027) < 0.001
  Q 1 602/29152 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 779/28350 1.340 (1.203–1.492) < 0.001 1.098 (0.982–1.228) 0.099
  Q 3 811/29599 1.336 (1.201–1.486) < 0.001 1.163 (1.020–1.326) 0.024
  Q 4 796/28941 1.341 (1.205–1.493) < 0.001 1.094 (0.950–1.260) 0.201
NO2
 Trimester 1   1.040 (1.016–1.066) 0.001 1.046 (1.003–1.091) 0.034
  Q 1 668/28909 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 793/29415 1.171 (1.055–1.300) 0.003 1.159 (1.034–1.299) 0.011
  Q 3 796/30061 1.150 (1.036–1.276) 0.009 1.223 (1.071–1.396) 0.003
  Q 4 731/27657 1.148 (1.032–1.276) < 0.011 1.292 (1.101–1.512) 0.002
 Trimester 2   1.054 (1.029–1.080) < 0.001 1.056 (1.010–1.105) 0.017
  Q 1 784/ 30,347 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 723/ 28,503 0.981 (0.886–1.087) 0.719 0.890 (0.796–0.994) 0.039
  Q 3 661/ 28,049 0.910 (0.820–1.011) 0.078 0.894 (0.779–1.025) 0.110
  Q 4 820/ 29,143 1.092 (0..989–1.206) 0.083 0.934 (0.791–1.103) 0.421
SO2
 Trimester 1   1.012 (0.994–1.030) 0.204 1.013 (0.985–1.068) 0.361
  Q 1 761/29302 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 713/28691 0.956 (0.862–1.060) 0.392 1.024 (0.908–1.156) 0.698
  Q 3 769/29332 1.010 (0.912–1.118) 0.852 1.051 (0.919–1.201) 0.469
  Q 4 745/28717 0.999 (0.902–1.107) 0.983 0.954 (0.804–1.131) 0.588
 Trimester 2   1.021 (1.002–1.041) 0.031 1.050 (1.019–1.082) 0.002
  Q 1 752/ 28,886 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 711/ 29,067 0.938 (0.846–1.041) 0.228 1.059 (0.937–1.198) 0.357
  Q 3 741/ 29,978 0.948 (0.856–1.051) 0.310 1.164 (1.022–1.326) 0.022
  Q 4 784/ 28,111 1.073 (0.970–1.188) 0.171 1.317 (1.119–1.551) 0.001
CO
 Trimester 1   0.943 (0.743–1.195) 0.625 1.297 (0.910–1.849) 0.151
  Q 1 792/28820 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 780/30067 0.943 (0.853–1.042) 0.247 1.084 (0.965–1.218) 0.172
  Q 3 640/28112 0.824 (0.742–0.916) < 0.001 1.083 (0.947–1.237) 0.245
  Q 4 776/29043 0.972 (0.879–1.074) 0.573 1.139 (0.969–1.338) 0.114
 Trimester 2   1.305 (1.034–1.648) 0.025 2.305 (1.602–3.317) < 0.001
  Q 1 844/ 30,607 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 652/ 27,083 0.870 (0.784–0.965) 0.008 1.019 (0.904–1.149) 0.759
  Q 3 679/ 28,681 0.855 (0.772–0.947) 0.003 1.160 (1.016–1.324) 0.029
  Q 4 813/ 29,671 0.993 (0.901–1.095) 0.896 1.238 (1.038–1.475) 0.017
O3
 Trimester 1   1.021 (1.013–1.029) < 0.001 1.024 (1.010–1.037) 0.001
  Q 1 653/ 28,869 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 726/ 29,512 1.090 (0.979–1.213) 0.115 1.205 (1.052–1.382) 0.007
  Q 3 816/ 29,378 1.234 (1.112–1.370) < 0.001 1.324 (1.136–1.544) < 0.001
  Q 4 793/ 28,283 1.246 (1.122–1.384) <  0.001 1.334 (1.132–1.574) 0.001
 Trimester 2   1.010 (1.003–1.017) 0.006 1.016 (1.003–1.029) 0.013
  Q 1 732/ 29,538 Reference   Reference  
  Q 2 712/ 28,467 1.010 (0.909–1.121) 0.859 1.214 (1.072–1.375) 0.002
  Q 3 756/ 29,362 1.040 (0.938–1.153) 0.455 1.177 (1.011–1.369) 0.035
  Q 4 788/ 28,675 1.112 (1.004–1.231) 0.041 1.239 (1.035–1.483) 0.020
  1. There were 113,054 parturients in Non-PE group, and 2988 parturients in PE group. The concentration of exposed ambient air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2, SO2, CO, O3) was stratified into four groups according to the quartile (Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4); Q1 acted as the reference, univariate logistic regression was used to examine the strength of association between exposure to air pollutants and preeclampsia; In adjusted model, trimester, gravidity, parity, age, education, hospital level, conception and delivery season were adjusted. PE preeclampsia, OR Odds ratio, CI confidence intervals, Trimester 1 the first trimester of pregnancy, Trimester 2 the second trimester of pregnancy