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Table 3 Clinical measurements collected using standard tests and examinations

From: The burden and predisposing factors of non-communicable diseases in Mashhad University of Medical Sciences personnel: a prospective 15-year organizational cohort study protocol and baseline assessment

Variable Total (n = 5287) Male (n = 2427) Female (n = 2860) P-valuea
Anthropometry
 Height (cm) 165.2 ± 9.8 172.8 ± 7.7 158.7 ± 6.1 < 0.001
 Weight (kg) 73.7 ± 13.4 80.3 ± 12.6 68 ± 11.4 < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 27 ± 5.26 26.97 ± 6.24 27.01 ± 4.25 0.82
 Abdomen Circumference (cm) 93 ± 10.7 95.6 ± 10.8 90.8 ± 10 < 0.001
 Neck Circumference (cm) 37 ± 4.1 38.7 ± 4.4 35.5 ± 3.1 < 0.001
Bio-impedance
 Total Body Water (liter) 35.8 ± 7.8 42.3 ± 5.9 30.2 ± 3.9 < 0.001
 Body Fat Mass (kg) 25 ± 8.1 22.7 ± 7.7 27 ± 7.9 < 0.001
 Protein (kg) 9.6 ± 2.1 11.4 ± 1.6 8 ± 1.1 < 0.001
 Mineral (kg) 3.3 ± 0.9 3.9 ± 1 2.9 ± 0.4 < 0.001
Laboratory
 Hyperglycaemia (FBS > 125 mg/dL) 265 (5.1%) 170 (7%) 95 (3.4%) < 0.001
 Hypercholesterolemia (Chol> 240 mg/dL) 305 (5.8%) 146 (6%) 159 (5.6%) 0.555
 Hypertriglyceridemia (TG > 150 mg/dL) 1257 (24%) 832 (34.3%) 425 (15.1%) < 0.001
 Low HDL (HDL < 40 mg/dL) 330 (6.3%) 252 (10.4%) 78 (2.8%) < 0.001
Pulse-Wave Analysis
 Central Systolic Pressure (mmHg) 108 ± 12 110 ± 12 105 ± 11.4 < 0.001
 Central Diastolic Pressure (mmHg) 74 ± 8.9 76 ± 9.1 71 ± 8.1 < 0.001
 Central Mean Pressure (mmHg) 87 ± 10.1 89 ± 10.3 85 ± 9.4 < 0.001
 Pulse-Wave Velocity (m/s) 7.2 ± 1.6 7.6 ± 1.6 6.7 ± 1.5 < 0.001
 Central Pulse Pressure (mmHg) 34 ± 6.8 34.4 ± 6.9 33.5 ± 6.8 0.002
 Augmentation Index (AIx) (%) 26.7 ± 11.5 23.5 ± 10.9 29.7 ± 11.2 < 0.001
Electrocardiography
 Heart Rate (bpm) 69 ± 14.7 67 ± 10.3 71 ± 17.7 < 0.001
 Bradycardia 693 (13.1%) 450 (18.5%) 243 (8.5%) < 0.001
 Tachycardia 32 (0.6%) 20 (0.8%) 12 (0.4%) 0.178
Heart Axis
 Normal (−30° to + 90°) 5007 (94.7%) 2244 (92.5%) 2763 (96.6%) < 0.001
 Left Axis Deviation (−30° to −90°) 164 (3.1%) 117 (4.8%) 47 (1.6%)
 vRight Axis Deviation (+ 90° to 180°) 100 (1.9%) 57 (2.3%) 43 (1.5%)
 Indeterminate Axis(−90° to 180°) 16 (0.3%) 9 (0.4%) 7 (0.2%)
 PR Interval (ms) 148 ± 31.2 152 ± 38.9 143 ± 20.7 < 0.001
 QRS Interval (ms) 93 ± 20.8 97 ± 25.4 90 ± 14.8 < 0.001
 T Interval (ms) 196 ± 50.6 195 ± 47.6 198 ± 53.3 0.082
 ST Interval (ms) 104 ± 14.7 100 ± 15.9 107 ± 12.5 < 0.001
 QT (ms) 396 ± 28.1 393 ± 28.1 398 ± 27.9 < 0.001
 QTcB (ms) 424 ± 104.1 416 ± 106.8 431 ± 101.1 < 0.001
 QTcF (ms) 415 ± 91.7 409 ± 91.9 420 ± 91.2 < 0.001
Spirometryb
 FEV1/FVC (%) 82.7 ± 7.6 82.1 ± 7.36 83.1 ± 7.72 < 0.001
 Normal (> = 70%) 4497 (95.6%) 2058 (95.3%) 2439 (95.8%) 0.602
 Mild Obstruction (60–69%) 158 (3.4%) 79 (3.7%) 79 (3.1%)
 Moderate Obstruction (50–59%) 37 (0.8%) 15 (0.7%) 22 (0.9%)
 Severe Obstruction (< 50%) 13 (0.3%) 7 (0.3%) 6 (0.2%)
Orthopedicc
 Right Pinch Strength (lbs) 10 ± 4.8 13.7 ± 4 7 ± 3.1 < 0.001
 Left Pinch Strength (lbs) 9.8 ± 4.7 13.3 ± 4 7 ± 3 < 0.001
 Right Grip Strength (lbs) 54.1 ± 24.1 73.6 ± 19.5 38.1 ± 13.3 < 0.001
 Left Grip Strength (lbs) 51 ± 23.5 69.5 ± 19.7 35.9 ± 13.2 < 0.001
 Carpal tunnel syndrome 264 (5%) 44 (1.8%) 220 (7.7%) < 0.001
 Calcaneal Spur 26 (0.5%) 7 (0.3%) 19 (0.7%) 0.059
 Knee Arthritis 48 (0.9%) 8 (0.3%) 40 (1.4%) < 0.001
Smell-Taste Assessment (N = 586)d
 Smell Score (0–6) 5.1 ± 1.3 4.9 ± 1.5 5.3 ± 1.1 < 0.001
 Taste Score (0–12) 9 ± 2.7 8.1 ± 2.9 9.9 ± 2.2 < 0.001
Ultrasound
Abdominopelvic
 Right Kidney Width (mm) 106 ± 8.6 107 ± 8.6 104 ± 8.4 < 0.001
 Left Kidney Width (mm) 107 ± 9.4 109 ± 7.9 105 ± 10.1 < 0.001
 Spleen Width (mm) 102 ± 13.9 107 ± 14.3 98 ± 12.5 < 0.001
 SAT (mm) 21.7 ± 8.4 22.3 ± 8.9 21.2 ± 7.9 0.041
 VAT (mm) 74 ± 22.6 82 ± 22.6 67 ± 20.3 < 0.001
 Liver Craniocaudal Diameter (mm) 101 ± 12.2 106 ± 12 97 ± 10.6 < 0.001
 Renal Aorta Diameter (mm) 14.5 ± 4.7 15.3 ± 2.1 13.7 ± 6 < 0.001
Thyroid
 Right Lobe Volume (cc) 5.51 ± 3.56 6.09 ± 3.43 5 ± 3.58 < 0.001
 Left Lobe Volume (cc) 5.86 ± 3.88 6.71 ± 4.09 5.12 ± 3.54 < 0.001
 Isthmus Volume (cc) 0.66 ± 0.87 0.78 ± 1.14 0.55 ± 0.51 < 0.001
 One Nodule 1464 (27.7%) 572 (23.6%) 892 (31.2%) < 0.001
 Two Nodules 550 (10.4%) 204 (8.4%) 346 (12.1%) 0.001
 Three Nodules 259 (4.9%) 77 (3.2%) 182 (6.4%) < 0.001
 Four Nodules 106 (2%) 28 (1.2%) 78 (2.7%) 0.001
 Five Nodules 42 (0.8%) 12 (0.5%) 30 (1%) 0.085
  1. Notes: Values are presented as mean ± SD or N (%)
  2. aAnalysis by independent-samples T test, Fisher’s exact test (2-sided), or Chi-square test
  3. bPatients who had at least one contraindication for Spirometry were excluded
  4. cThe frequency of disorders are the sum of left and right hands/foots
  5. dThe smell-taste test was performed only for the high-risk subpopulation
  6. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, FBS Fasting Blood Sugar, Chol Cholesterol, TG Triglycerides, HDL High-Density Lipoproteins, TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone, PSA Prostate-Specific Antigen, FEV1/FVC Forced Expiratory Volume/Forced Vital Capacity, SAT Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, VAT Visceral Adipose Tissue, NA Not Applicable