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Table 1 Study characteristics of articles included in the umbrella review

From: Key facets to build up eHealth and mHealth interventions to enhance physical activity, sedentary behavior and nutrition in healthy subjects – an umbrella review

Author
type of review
Aim Target population
Setting
Country (number of studies) N studies (N participants, age [years]) PA/SB/HE
Main outcomes inclusion criteria
(device-measured/ self-reported/ both)
Intervention effectiveness for PA/SB/HE AMSTAR Review Quality
Böhm et al. 2019 [47]
Systematic review
To examine mHealth effectiveness for PA children and/or adolescents
NA
Australia (2),
New Zealand (1),
Canada (1),
Israel (1),
Poland (1),
USA (1)
7
(1164, 8–18)
PA
Measured at least 1 PA-related variable as the outcome, (5/ 0/ 2)
PA:
Ø
6/11
medium
Buckingham et al. 2019 [53]
Systematic review
To examine mHealth effectiveness, feasibility and acceptability for PA and SB NA
workplace
USA (11),
Australia (5),
Canada (2),
Netherlands (2),
Belgium (1),
Singapore (1),
Finland (1),
Norway (1),
in multiple countries (1)
30 publications, 25
(73,417, 18+)
PA/SB
Any quantitative measure as primary outcome (21/ 4/ 0)
PA:
14/25 (56%) ↑ over time or vs control
6/25 (24%) Ø
3/25 (12%) ↓ over time or vs control
2/25 (8%) N/A
Between-group difference for ↑ of around 847 (95% CI 68–1625) to 2183 (95% CI 992–3344) steps/day
SB:
4/10 (40%) ↓over time or vs control
3/10 (30%) Ø
3/10 (30%) ↑over time or vs control
7/11
medium
Direito et al. 2017 [52]
Systematic review and meta-analysis
To examine mHealth effectiveness for PA and SB
To investigate relationship between the effect size and the nature of PA/SB outcomes and to code the BCTs
NA
NA
USA (11),
Australia (3),
United Kingdom (3),
Austria (1),
Portugal (1),
Ireland (1),
Canada (1)
21
(1701, 8.4–71.7)
PA/SB
Duration or an estimate of energy expenditure
(9/ 12/ 4)
1 not validated
PA:
Total PA (7 studies):
Ø SMD = 0.14, 95% CI − 0.12 - 0.41, I2 = 60%
MVPA (9 studies):Ø SMD = 0.37, 95% CI − 0.03 - 0.77, I2 = 78%
Walking (8 studies):
Ø SMD = 0.14, 95%CI − 0.01 - 0.29, I2 = 0%
SB (5 studies):
↓ SMD = − 0.26, 95% CI − 0.53 - − 0.00, I2 = 0%
8/11
medium
Ferrer et al. 2017 [51]
Systematic review
To examine eHealth effectiveness for PA NA
Facebook
Not reported 8
(458, all ages
(M = 24.3,
SD = 7,5)
93,4% female
PA
Either as a primary or a secondary outcome measure
(2/ 4/ 2)
PA:
2/5 (40%) RCTs ↑ group by time interaction for steps per week and light PA participation
0/5 (0%) RCTs reported significant main effects for group,4/5 (80%) RCTs reported significant main effects for time
1/3 (33%) non-RCTs studies ↑ group by time interactions for self-reported total PA
1/3 (33%) ↑ total steps during the social condition
1/3 (33%) ↑ self-reported mean minutes per week for all categories of PA
4/11
medium
Hamel et al. 2011 [56]
Systematic review
To examine eHealth effectiveness for PA and HE preadolescents and adolescents, 8–18 years
NA
USA (11),
Belgium (3)
14
(6123 reported, 9–18)
PA
PA or a PA-related health change as an outcome variable (2/ 10/ 2)
PA:
6/9 (67%) school-based interventions either ↑ PA in the intervention conditions and/or ↓ weight or BMI
2/5 (40%) home-based interventions either ↑ PA or ↓ BMI
4/11
medium
McIntosh et al. 2017 [50]
Systematic review
To examine eHealth effectiveness for PA young people attending school, college or university
NA
USA (4),
Netherlands (2),
Thailand (1),
Japan (1),
Canada (1),
Europe (1)
10
(5352, young people)
PA
Primary or secondary outcome
(8/ 1/ 1)
PA:
8/10 (80%) ↑ over time or vs control
5/11
medium
Muellemann et al. 2018 [49]
Systematic review
To examine eHealth effectiveness for PA
To compare effectiveness with either no intervention or a non-eHealth intervention.
older adults, 55 years or above
NA
USA (11),
Netherlands (3),
Belgium (1),
Spain (1),
Australia (1),
New Zealand (1),
Malaysia (1)
25 publications, 20 (6671, 56–79.8 years) PA
Intervention effectiveness for any measure of PA
(5/ 13/ 2)
PA:
9/9 (100%) web-based interventions ↑ over time or vs control
4/7 (57%) telephone-based interventions ↑ over time or vs control
3/4 (75%) text messaging-based interventions ↑ group over time or vs control
7/11
medium
Nour et al. 2016 [54]
Systematic review and meta-analysis
To examine e/mHealth efficacy for HE young adults, 18 to 35 years
NA
USA (8),
Australia (4),
New Zealand (1),
Malaysia (1)
14 (7984, M = 20.8) HE
Primary or secondary aim of increasing FVI (0/ 14/ 0), 5 not validated
HE:
FVI (8 studies):
↑ SMD = 0.22 95% CI 0.11–0.33, I2 = 68.5%
Vegetable intake (5 studies):
↑ SMD = 0.15 95% CI 0.04–0.28, I2 = 31.4%
9/11
high
Rocha et al. 2019 [55]
Meta-analysis
To examine eHealth effectiveness for HE
To investigate the relationship of effectiveness and intervention characteristics (eHealth tool, tailoring, BCTs, and age group)
NA
NA
USA (10),
Netherlands (3),
Scotland (1),
Belgium (1),
Portugal (1),
Italy (1),
Sweden (1),
New Zealand (1)
19 (6894, M = 4,5 to 57,75) HE
Reporting FVI results quantitatively
(0/ 19/ 0), 5 not validated
HE:
FVI (19 studies):
g = 0.26 95% CI 0.17, 0.35, I2 = 62.77, p < .001
6/11
medium
Schoeppe et al. 2016 [57]
Systematic review
To examine mHealth effectiveness for PA, SB and HE children and/or adults
NA
USA (9),
Australia (6),
Canada (3),
Switzerland (2),
Netherlands (2),
Ireland (2),
Italy (1),
Israel (1),
New Zealand (1)
30 publications, 27 (2699, 8–71) PA/SB/HE
Efficacy for behavior change. All types and units of measurements (8/ 13/ 6)
PA SB and/or HE:
19/27 (70%) ↑ in behavioral and related health outcomes either over time or vs control
5/10 (50%) ↑ single health behavior interventions vs control
7/17 (41%) ↑ multiple health behavior interventions vs control
8/13 (62%) ↑app in conjunction with other intervention strategies vs control
5/14 (36%) ↑ stand-alone app interventions vs control
4/11
medium
Stephenson et al. 2017 [48]
Systematic review and meta-analysis
To examine e/mHealth for SB
To identify the BCTs used within interventions
adults, 18 years or above
NA
Not reported 17 (1967, M = 20,4 - 64,1) SB
Device-measured or self-reported or proxy measure of SB
(8/ 6/ 3)
SB (15 studies):
↓ −41.28 min/day 95% CI −60.99 - − 21.58, I2 = 77% at end point follow-up
5/11
medium
  1. Abbreviations: HE healthy eating, M mean, NA not available, PA physical activity, RCT randomized control trial, SB sedentary behavior, SD standard deviation, USA United States of America