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Table 1 Association between underweight and socioeconomic and demographic variables

From: Socioeconomic and demographic factors determining the underweight prevalence among children under-five in Punjab

Covariate Categories Underweight Pearson Chi- Square Test
No (%) Yes (%) Value d.f P-Value
Locality Rural 10,095 (62.90) 5954 (37.10) 189.35 1 0.000
Urban 5915 (71.74) 2330 (28.26)
Gender Female 8153 (65.74) 4248 (34.26) 0.276 1 0.607
Male 7857 (66.06) 4036 (33.94)
Mother’s education level None 6880 (43.68) 4998 (56.32) 931.495 4 0.000
Primary 2975 (66.08) 1527 (33.92)
Middle 1695 (71.88) 663 (28.12)
Secondary 2209 (76.12) 693 (23.88)
Higher 2251 (84.82) 403 (15.18)
Father’s education level None 3848 (55.39) 3099 (44.61) 810.205 4 0.000
Primary 2772 (61.72) 1719 (38.28)
Middle 2729 (67.27) 1328 (32.73)
Secondary 3877 (51.98) 1456 (27.30)
Higher 2784 (80.01) 682 (19.99)
Mother’s occupation Housewife 14,345 (66.27) 7300 (33.73) 12.285 1 0.000
Working Woman 1665 (62.85) 984 (37.15)
Father’s occupation Unemployed 836 (68.36) 387 (31.64) 324.201 4 0.000
Laborer 3606 (13.33) 2667 (42.52)
Farmer 2488 (92.58) 1407 (36.12)
Official 4800 (36,24) 2065 (30.08)
Businessman 4280 (79.50) 1758 (29.12)
Wealth index quantile Lowest 2981 (52.44) 2704 (47.56) 1076.13 4 0.000
Second 3137 (61.11) 1996 (38.89)
Middle 3374 (67.64) 1614 (32.36)
Fourth 3484 (72.09) 1349 (27.91)
Highest 3034 (83.01) 621 (16.99)
Total number of under-five children in household None 16,010 (65.90) 8284 (34.10) 22.077 8 0.040
Total children ever born to a woman None 15,997 (65.90) 8276 (34.10) 192.48 17 0.000
Sanitation Unimproved 4723 (57.08) 3551 (42.92) 434.23 1 0.000
Improved 11,287 (70.46) 4733 (29.54)
Sources of drinking water Unimproved 850 (62.32) 514 (37.68) 7.1 1 0.008
Improved 15,098 (65.84) 7832 (34.16)
Access to media No 5030 (58.08) 3630 (41.92) 366.011 1 0.000
Yes 10,980 (70.23) 4654 (29.77)
Region Southern Punjab 5029 (60.10) 3339 (39.90) 264.389 2 0.000
Central Punjab 9491 (67.76) 4516 (32.24)
Northern Punjab 1489 (77.63) 429 (23.37)
Age of mother when children born None 16,010 (65.90) 8284 (34.10) 54.538 38 0.0400
Age of children None 16,010 (65.90) 8284 (34.10) 140.544 59 0.000