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Table 2 Risk factors associated with prevalent PI

From: Level of physical activity among middle-aged and older Chinese people: evidence from the China health and retirement longitudinal study

  Missing observations Robust MI
p value RR (95% CI) p value RR (95% CI)
PI 156 / / / /
Age 0     
 45–60   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 60–75   0.82 0.98 (0.86 to 1.13) 0.801 0.99 (0.88 to 1.10)
  > =75   < 0.001 1.35 (1.11 to 1.64) < 0.001 1.38 (1.20 to 1.60)
Gender 2     
 Male   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Female   0.47 1.06 (0.90 to 1.25) 0.869 1.01 (0.89 to 1.15)
Living area 0     
 Rural   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Urban   0.16 1.10 (0.96 to 1.26) 0.091 1.10 (0.99 to 1.23)
Spouse 0     
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   0.93 0.99 (0.85 to 1.16) 0.607 0.97 (0.87 to 1.09)
Education level 3     
 Illiteracy   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Elementary school   0.36 1.07 (0.92 to 1.24) 0.850 1.01 (0.90 to 1.13)
 Middle/high school   0.03 1.22 (1.02 to 1.45) 0.188 1.10 (0.96 to 1.26)
 College or above   0.51 1.18 (0.72 to 1.93) 0.787 1.05 (0.74 to 1.50)
Working status 21     
 Not working   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Currently working   < 0.001 0.38 (0.33 to 0.44) < 0.001 0.43 (0.38 to 0.48)
PCE level 945     
 1/5   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 2/5   0.12 0.87 (0.73 to 1.04) 0.154 0.90 (0.77 to 1.04)
 3/5   0.04 0.83 (0.70 to 0.99) 0.057 0.86 (0.74 to 1.00)
 4/5   0.11 0.87 (0.73 to 1.03) 0.040 0.86 (0.74 to 0.99)
 5/5   0.01 0.77 (0.63 to 0.93) 0.003 0.78 (0.66 to 0.92)
Public facilities 119 0.28 0.99 (0.97 to 1.01) 0.033 0.98 (0.97 to 1.00)
BMI level 1161     
 Normal   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Underweight   0.05 1.25 (1.00 to 1.55) 0.003 1.33 (1.10 to 1.60)
 Overweight   0.02 1.18 (1.03 to 1.35) 0.008 1.19 (1.05 to 1.34)
 Obesity   < 0.001 1.31 (1.11 to 1.56) 0.003 1.27 (1.09 to 1.48)
NCDs 272     
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   0.05 0.88 (0.78 to 1.00) 0.057 0.90 (0.81 to 1.00)
Smoking 0     
 Never smoking   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Used to smoke, have stopped   0.82 0.97 (0.78 to 1.22) 0.277 0.91 (0.76 to 1.08)
 Currently smoking   0.92 1.01 (0.85 to 1.19) 0.661 0.97 (0.85 to 1.11)
Drinking 1     
 Never drinking   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Less than once a month   0.60 0.94 (0.74 to 1.19) 0.510 0.94 (0.78 to 1.13)
 More than once a month   0.85 0.98 (0.83 to 1.16) 0.129 0.90 (0.78 to 1.03)
ADL/IADL disability 94     
 No   Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Yes   < 0.001 1.36 (1.20 to 1.54) < 0.001 1.44 (1.31 to 1.59)
  1. The analysis was conducted using cross-sectional data of baseline survey. MI Multiple imputation, RR relative risk, CI Confidence interval, ref Reference group, PCE Per capita expenditure, PA physical activity, BMI Body mass interval, NCD non-communicable diseases