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Table 1 Findings of previous evaluations of the effects of cash transfers on HIV prevention outcomes in sub-Saharan Africa among females

From: Spillover HIV prevention effects of a cash transfer trial in East Zimbabwe: evidence from a cluster-randomised trial and general-population survey

Evaluation Ref Evaluated population a CT type Biological outcomes Sexual debut, frequency of sex, number of partners Condom use, condomless sex Other
South Africa
HPTN 068 [16]
School: 13–20 years CCT No effect on HIV or HSV-2 incidence Reduced sexual debut; fewer partners; no effect multiple partners Reduced unprotected sex Reduced IPV; no effect on age-disparate relationships or transactional sex
CAPRISA 007 [15] School: grade 9/10 CCT Reduced HSV-2 incidence Not measured Not measured Not measured
NSP (national) [10] 10–18 years UCT Not measured No effect multiple partners No effect unprotected sex Reduced age-disparate relationships and transactional sex
CSG (national) [11] 15–16 years UCT Not measured Reduced sexual debut; fewer partners Not measured Not measured
SIHR [18] School: 13–22 years UCT, CCT Reduced HIV & HSV-2 prevalence No effect sexual debut, reduced frequency of sex past week No effect unprotected sex Reduced age-disparate relationships
SCT (national)
[12] 13–19 years UCT Not measured No effect sexual debut; reduced sex acts b No effect condom use b Reduced age-disparate relationships; no effect on transactional sex; reduced IPV
MIP [20] 15+ years CCT Not measured Reduced sex past 9 days No effect condom use Net decrease condomless sex
HSCT (national) 48-month c [25] 13–20 years UCT Not measured Increased age at first sex; no effect number of sex acts or partners Reduced unprotected sex No effect on transactional sex
CT-OVC (national) [13] 15–25 years UCT Not measured Reduced sexual debut; reduced multiple partners No effect condom use No effect on transactional sex
RESPECT [21] 18–30 years CCT Reduced STI prevalence Reduced multiple partners No effect condom use Not measured
Lottery [22] 18–32 years CCT Reduced HIV incidence Reduced number of partners b Reduced unprotected sex b Not measured
  1. Ref Reference, CT Cash transfer, UCT Unconditional cash transfer, CCT Conditional cash transfers, HSV-2 Herpes simplex virus type 2, IPV Intimate partner violence
  2. Study and programme names in South Africa are the HIV prevention trial network (HPTN) 068 study, and the national social protection (NSP) and child support grant (CSG) programmes. In Malawi they are the Schooling, Income, and Health Risk (SIHR) study, the Social Cash Transfer (SCT) programme, and the Malawi Incentives Programme (MIP). In Zimbabwe it is the Harmonised Social Cash Transfer (HSCT) programme. In Kenya it is the Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children (CT-OVC) programme
  3. a If the evaluation included a follow-up, the age of the population refers to baseline eligibility criteria
  4. b Both sexes evaluated together
  5. c The evaluation of the HSCT programme in Zimbabwe after 12 months had a small sample size, so only results from the 48-month evaluation are reported