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Table 1 Frequencies, unadjusted, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of internet non-use by older Indigenous Canadians

From: Internet non-use among Canadian Indigenous older adults: Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS)

  N (%) % Internet non-use Unadjusted OR (95% CI) Adjusted OR (95% CI)
Sociodemographic Factors
Age
  65–69 44,660 (45.04) 23.64 1 1
  70–74 29,560 (29.82) 32.76 1.57 (1.48–1.68) 1.40 (1.29–1.51)
  75–79 14,810 (14.94) 43.60 2.50 (2.31–2.69) 1.68 (1.52–1.86)
  80+ 10,110 (10.2) 65.38 6.10 (5.57–6.67) 4.02 (3.54–4.57)
Indigenous Identity
  Metis 50,760 (51.7) 27.65 1 1
  First Nations 43,000 (43.79) 39.34 1.70 (1.61–1.79) 1.60 (1.49–1.72)
  Inuit 3220 (3.28) 54.78 3.17 (2.98–3.37) 1.19 (1.05–1.35)
  Multiple Indigenous Identities * * 0.51 (0.39–0.66) 1.06 (0.80–1.39)
Sex
  Female 52,770 (53.23) 32.47 1 1
  Male 46,370 (46.77) 34.91 1.12 (1.06–1.17) 1.52 (1.41–1.63)
Province
  British Columbia 14,190 (14.31) 22.62 1 1
  Alberta 11,170 (11.26) 32.05 1.61 (1.47–1.77) 1.71 (1.52–1.93)
  Saskatchewan 5960 (6.01) 38.74 2.16 (1.96–2.39) 1.84 (1.61–2.11)
  Manitoba 9380 (9.46) 35.54 1.89 (1.71–2.08) 1.76 (1.53–2.02)
  Ontario 26,500 (26.73) 31.82 1.60 (1.46–1.74) 1.32 (1.18–1.48)
  Québec 16,930 (17.07) 37.77 2.08 (1.89–2.29) 2.03 (1.74–2.36)
  Eastern-Atlantic Provinces 12,640 (12.75) 37.53 2.05 (1.85–2.28) 1.22 (1.06--1.40)
  Territories 2370 (2.39) 55.04 4.19 (3.85–4.55) 1.34 (1.18–1.52)
Population Centre
  Large Urban 33,200 (33.48) 25.74 1 1
  Smaller Urban 32,200 (32.48) 34.27 1.50 (1.41–1.60) 1.33 (1.22–1.45)
  Rural 33,740 (34.03) 40.73 1.98 (1.86–2.11) 1.95 (1.79–2.13)
Marital Status
  Single/Not Married 58,980 (59.49) 28.53 1 1
  Married/Common Law 40,160 (40.51) 41.15 1.75 (1.66–1.85) 1.34 (1.25–1.44)
Mother Tongue
  French 25,180 (25.4) 34.60 1 1
  English 64,190 (64.75) 29.97 0.81 (0.76–0.86) 1.07 (0.95–1.20)
  Indigenous Language 7900 (7.97) 58.13 2.62 (2.41–2.86) 1.38 (1.18–1.63)
  Other 1870 (1.89) 42.84 1.42 (1.22–1.65) 1.33 (1.08–1.63)
Residential School Experience
  No 44,570 (44.95) 30.86 1 1
  Yes 26,650 (26.88) 38.35 1.39 (1.32–1.48) 1.07 (0.99–1.16)
  Not stated 27,930 (28.17) 33.44 1.13 (1.06–1.20) 0.99 (0.91–1.08)
Belonging to Indigenous Group
  Strongly Disagree/Disagree 18,980 (20.49) 22.49 1 1
  Neither Agree or Disagree 6660 (7.19) 19.82 0.85 (0.75–0.96) 0.84 (0.71–0.98)
  Strongly Agree/Agree 67,000 (72.32) 35.62 1.91 (1.77–2.05) 1.42 (1.30–1.56)
Socioeconomic Factors
Education
  Bachelor’s Degree and above 8920 (9.25) 4.52 1 1
  Postsecondary below Bachelors 30,980 (32.14) 24.52 6.86 (5.64–8.33) 2.97 (2.40–3.67)
  Some-post secondary 11,740 (12.18) 23.83 6.60 (5.40–8.09) 2.85 (2.28–3.57)
  Secondary/Some secondary 27,170 (28.19) 35.25 11.50 (9.45–13.98) 4.99 (4.04–6.16)
  Less than secondary 17,580 (18.24) 67.04 42.94 (35.25–52.31) 8.74 (7.03–10.87)
Total Personal Income
  60,000 + (Highest) 9340 (10.78) 8.58 1 1
  30,000–59,999 (Middle) 25,490 (29.43) 20.92 2.82 (2.46–3.24) 1.66 (1.39–1.97)
  5000–29,999 (Low Mid) 49,820 (57.51) 42.05 7.73 (6.82–8.77) 2.47 (2.08–2.92)
  Less than 5000 (Lowest) 1970 (2.28) 49.88 10.61 (9.79–12.80) 3.45 (2.73–4.37)
Employment
  Employed 15,740 (15.88) 16.28 1 1
  Unemployed 83,350 (84.12) 36.88 3.00 (2.77–3.26) 1.41 (1.26–1.57)
Residential Stability
  0 Times (Stable) 72,090 (73.52) 33.28 1 1
  1–3 Times (Moder. Stable) 23,880 (24.36) 33.77 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 0.88 (0.82–0.95)
  4+ Times (Unstable) 2080 (2.12) 31.21 0.91 (0.74–1.13) 1.26 (1.02–1.56)
Lifestyle Factors
Alcohol Use
  Regular 42,810 (43.64) 23.29 1 1
  Occasional 16,300 (16.62) 31.53 1.51 (1.41–1.63) 1.26 (1.15–1.38)
  Non-drinker 38,970 (39.73) 45.95 2.80 (2.65–2.96) 1.59 (1.48–1.72)
Smoking
  No 80,840 (82.04) 31.20 1 1
  Yes 17,700 (17.96) 44.71 1.78 (1.68–1.89) 1.73 (1.59–1.87)
Marijuana
  No 89,270 (95.92) 31.68 1 1
  Yes 3800 (4.08) 33.08 1.07 (0.93–1.22) 1.24 (1.05–1.46)
Recreational/Street Drugs
  No 92,190 (99.16) 31.54 1 1
  Yes 780 (0.84) 53.92 2.54 (2.03–3.17) 1.70 (1.30–2.22)
Basic Needs
  More than enough 21,240 (21.53) 18.92 1 1
  Enough 56,490 (57.28) 33.36 2.14 (2.00–2.31) 1.56 (1.41–1.73)
  Not enough 20,900 (21.19) 49.08 4.13 (3.80–3.49) 2.20 (1.95–2.50)
Health Factors
Self-perceived General Health
  Very Good/Excellent 37,040 (37.44) 23.12 1 1
  Good 32,190 (32.54) 36.41 1.90 (1.79–2.03) 1.23 (1.13–1.35)
  Fair/Poor 29,690 (30.02) 43.63 2.57 (2.42–2.74) 1.10 (1.00–1.21)
Self-perceived Mental Health
  Very Good/Excellent 56,300 (60.09) 24.59 1 1
  Good 28,830 (30.76) 42.79 2.29 (2.16–3.43) 1.41 (1.31–1.53)
  Fair/Poor 8580 (9.15) 41.52 2.18 (2.00–2.37) 1.43 (1.27–1.61)
Regular Medical Doctor
  Yes 92,020 (93.48) 32.67 1 1
  No 6420 (6.52) 47.12 1.84 (1.69–1.99) 1.31 (1.17–1.48)
Unmet Health Needs
  Yes 9500 (9.67) 31.10 1 1
  No 88,720 (90.33) 33.84 1.13 (1.04–1.24) 1.45 (1.30–1.60)
  1. *indicates values that are not disclosed due to small sample size
  2. Results in bold are significant at alpha of 0.05