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Table 2 Results of multivariate regression analyses for the association between the predictor and control variables, and the scale scores of NAPLAN Year 3 tests in five domains, Northern Territory Aboriginal children, NAPLAN tests from 2009 to 2016

From: The impact of hearing impairment on early academic achievement in Aboriginal children living in remote Australia: a data linkage study

Variable Reading Writing Grammar Spelling Numeracy
Adj COEF (95% CI) Adj COEF (95% CI) Adj COEF (95% CI) Adj COEF (95% CI) Adj COEF (95% CI)
Hearing assessment result
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Unilateral −0.5 (−12.0 ~ 11.0) −3.4 (− 12.3 ~ 5.5) 8.3 (−5.0 ~ 21.6) 0.1 (−5.5 ~ 5.8) −3.0 (−12.6 ~ 6.5)
 Mild −5.7 (−16.4 ~ 5.1) −15.0 (−22.4 ~ −7.6)*** 1.1 (− 11.5 ~ 13.7) − 5.0 (−9.6 ~ − 0.3)* −5.2 (−13.5 ~ 3.0)
 Moderate or worse 0.5 (−14.6 ~ 15.6) −12.8 (− 24.2 ~ − 1.4)* 5.1 (− 12.5 ~ 22.6) −6.6 (− 14.1 ~ 1.0) −15.0 (− 27.4 ~ − 2.6)*
Male gender
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −18.2 (−26.7 ~ −9.7)*** − 27.9 (−34.1 ~ − 21.8)*** −14.9 (−24.8 ~ −5.0)** −8.7 (− 12.6 ~ −4.8)*** −13.5 (−20.1 ~ −6.8)***
Birthweight (gram)
 ≥ 2500 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 < 2500 2.4 (−10.6 ~ 15.3) −7.6 (− 16.8 ~ 1.5) 6.4 (−9.2 ~ 21.9) −3.0 (−8.6 ~ 2.6) − 11.7 (−22.3 ~ −1.1)*
Attended preschool
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −6.8 (−19.6 ~ 5.9) 3.5 (−5.5 ~ 12.5) −7.1 (−21.5 ~ 7.2) −2.9 (−9.0 ~ 3.1) 2.5 (−7.2 ~ 12.3)
Average household size^
 ≤ 5 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 > 5 −4.7 (−36.8 ~ 27.5) −31.2 (−58.1 ~ −4.3)* −11.9 (− 51.7 ~ 27.8) −7.8 (−23.1 ~ 7.6) − 38.2 (−67.0 ~ −9.3)*
Very remote^
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −12.4 (−38.9 ~ 14.1) −12.4 (−32.4 ~ 7.6) 8.3 (−22.7 ~ 39.2) −13.5 (− 26.2 ~ −0.9)* −15.3 (− 35.2 ~ 4.5)
ESL
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −5.2 (−24.2 ~ 13.8) −20.6 (−36.7 ~ −4.5)* −34.6 (− 57.6 ~ −11.6)** −14.9 (−25.1 ~ − 4.7)** −19.2 (− 32.7 ~ − 5.7)*
Age at Y3 NAPLAN
 8 yr Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 < 8 −3.8 (−17.6 ~ 10.1) −10.7 (−19.8 ~ −1.7)* −13.1 (−28.4 ~ 2.2) −7.2 (−12.1 ~ − 2.3)** −20.3 (−31.2 ~ −9.4)***
 ≥ 9 −4.8 (−20.5 ~ 11.0) 11.8 (−1.1 ~ 24.8) 22.2 (1.9 ~ 42.6)* 3.6 (−5.2 ~ 12.7) 1.1 (−11.5 ~ 13.8)
Year 2 attendance
 ≥ 80% Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 60–79% −12.5 (−22.8 ~ −2.2)* −28.7 (−36.8 ~ − 20.5)*** −21.7 (− 34.1 ~ −9.3)** −11.6 (−17.1 ~ −6.1)*** −16.4 (−24.1 ~ −8.8)***
 < 60% −26.1 (− 38.0 ~ −14.2)*** −52.7 (− 61.4 ~ −43.9)*** −35.8 (− 49.5 ~ − 22.1)*** −23.1 (− 28.7 ~ − 17.5)*** −29.6 (−38.6 ~ − 20.7)***
Model statistics
 Number of children 1992   2045   2066   2066   1953  
 Adjusted R-squared 0.335   0.326   0.264   0.290   0.245  
  1. ^ Community level variables
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.005; *** p < 0.0005
  3. Note: NAPLAN: National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy; Adj COEF: adjusted coefficient; ESL: Speaking English as second language