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Table 1 Results of univariate regression analyses for the association between the explanatory and control variables, and the scale scores of NAPLAN Year 3 tests in five domains, Northern Territory Aboriginal children, NAPLAN tests from 2009 to 2016

From: The impact of hearing impairment on early academic achievement in Aboriginal children living in remote Australia: a data linkage study

Variable Reading Writing Grammar Spelling Numeracy
Unadj COEF (95% CI) Unadj COEF (95% CI) Unadj COEF (95% CI) Unadj COEF (95% CI) Unadj COEF (95% CI)
Hearing assessment result
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Unilateral 0.2 (−11.7 ~ 12.1) −4.6 (− 14.0 ~ 4.7) 10.5 (−3.1 ~ 24.2) −0.6 (−6.7 ~ 5.4) −5.7 (−15.5 ~ 4.1)
 Mild −4.7 (− 15.5 ~ 6.2) −15.8 (−23.7 ~ − 8.0)*** 3.8 (− 9.0 ~ 16.7) − 5.4 (− 10.5 ~ − 0.2)* −7.3 (− 15.7 ~ 1.0)
 Moderate or worse 2.1 (− 13.4 ~ 17.5) −12.7 (− 24.7 ~ − 0.8)* 8.7 (− 9.7 ~ 27.2) − 7.4 (− 15.4 ~ 0.7) − 16.0 (− 29.0 ~ − 3.0)*
Antenatal care visit < 7
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −2.8 (− 12.6 ~ 6.9) −4.3 (−11.5 ~ 2.8) −6.5 (− 17.5 ~ 4.6) − 5.7 (− 10.4–1.1)* − 2.5 (− 10.0 ~ 5.0)
Teenage mother (mother aged < 20)
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −1.9 (−11.2 ~ 7.4) 2.6 (−4.5 ~ 9.6) −2.3 (−13.3 ~ 8.6) −2.3 (−6.6 ~ 2.1) − 2.1 (− 9.2 ~ 5.0)
Mother drinking alcohol during pregnancy
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −0.02 (−14.8 ~ 14.7) 4.3 (−7.0 ~ 15.6) 1.4 (−16.6 ~ 19.3) 0.4 (− 7.2 ~ 8.0) 6.3 (−4.7 ~ 17.2)
Mother smoking during pregnancy
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 0.5 (−9.4 ~ 10.4) −5.4 (−13.0 ~ 2.1) 2.6 (−9.1 ~ 14.4) −3.3 (−8.2 ~ 1.5) 1.4 (−6.4 ~ 9.1)
Male gender
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −19.9 (−28.5 ~ − 11.3)*** − 27.8 (−34.0 ~ − 21.7)*** −14.9 (− 24.8 ~ − 4.9)** −8.6 (−12.6 ~ − 4.7)*** −13.5 (−20.1 ~ − 6.9)***
Birthweight (gram)
 ≥ 2500 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 < 2500 2.3 (−11.0 ~ 15.6) −7.6 (− 16.8 ~ 1.5) 6.4 (−9.2 ~ 22.0) −3 (−8.6 ~ 2.7) − 11.7 (−22.3 ~ − 1.1)*
Preterm birth (< 34 wks GA)
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 1.1 (−10.8 ~ 12.9) −11.3 (− 19.7 ~ −2.9) 1.2 (− 13.4 ~ 15.8) −1.5 (−7.2 ~ 4.2) −5.9 (− 16.3 ~ 4.5)
Parity
 1 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 2–3 8.0 (−1.7 ~ 17.8) −2.6 (− 10.0 ~ −4.8) 4.2 (−7.5 ~ 15.8) 3.5 (− 1.5 ~ 8.4) −0.1 (− 7.8 ~ 7.5)
 4+ 5.1 (−8.2 ~ 18.5) −7.6 (−17.8 ~ 2.5) −5.1 (−20.2 ~ 9.9) − 1.5 (− 7.6 ~ 4.5) −11.3 (− 22.7 ~ 0.1)
Apgar 5
 ≥ 7 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 < 7 −9.7 (−32.9 ~ 13.4) −19 (−35.2 ~ −2.7)* −41.6 (−68.3 ~ − 14.9)** − 3.6 (−13.6 ~ 6.3) 1.6 (−16.1 ~ 19.2)
Attended preschool
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes 2.7 (−9.5 ~ 15.0) −1.1 (−10.1 ~ 8.0) 10.4 (−3.5 ~ 24.3) 1.5 (−4.7 ~ 7.7) −0.1 (−9.1 ~ 9.0)
Average household size^
 ≤ 5 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 > 5 −2.9 (−38.7 ~ 33.0) −31.2 (−58.0 ~ −4.3) − 11.8 (− 51.4 ~ 27.8) −7.7 (− 23.1 ~ 7.7) −38.2 (−67.0 ~ − 9.3)*
Average persons per bedroom^
 ≤ 2 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 > 2 −5.6 (−45.3 ~ 34.2) −23.3 (− 55.1 ~ 8.4) 3 (−46.0 ~ 52.1) 1.5 (−17.4 ~ 20.3) −21.1 (−68.2 ~ 25.9)
Very remote^
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −19.0 (− 46.9 ~ 8.9) −12.5 (−32.4 ~ 7.4) 7.9 (−22.9 ~ 38.8) −13.8 (−26.4 ~ − 1.1)* −15.3 (− 35.1 ~ 4.6)
ESL
 No Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 Yes −3.1 (−23.6 ~ 17.4) −20.5 (− 36.6 ~ −4.4)* −34.7 (−57.7 ~ − 11.7)** −14.9 (−25.2 ~ − 4.7)** −19.2 (−32.6 ~ − 5.7)*
Age at Y3 NAPLAN
 8 yr Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 < 8 −5.3 (−19.6 ~ 9.0) −10.8 (− 19.8 ~ − 1.7)* −13.1 (−28.5 ~ 2.2) −7.3 (− 12.2 ~ − 2.3)** −20.3 (− 31.2 ~ − 9.3)***
 ≥ 9 − 10.7 (− 26.7 ~ 5.3) 11.8 (−1.2 ~ 24.7) 22.7 (2.4 ~ 43.0)* 3.9 (− 5.2 ~ 13.0) 0.9 (−11.7 ~ 13.5)
Year 2 attendance
 ≥ 80% Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 60–79% −14.8 (−25.3 ~ −4.3)* − 28.7 (−36.9 ~ − 20.5)*** −21.7 (− 34.1 ~ −9.3)** −11.7 (− 17.1 ~ −6.2)*** −16.4 (− 24.1 ~ −8.7)***
 < 60% −26.8 (− 38.9 ~ − 14.7)*** − 52.7 (− 61.4 ~ − 43.9)*** − 35.9 (− 49.5 ~ − 22.2)*** − 23.1 (− 28.7 ~ − 17.5)*** −29.6 (− 38.5 ~ − 20.7)***
  1. ^ Community level variables
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.005; *** p < 0.0005
  3. Note: NAPLAN: National Assessment Program – Literacy and Numeracy; Unadj COEF: unadjusted coefficient; ESL: Speaking English as second language