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Table 1 Correlation coefficients between monthly positive ONI and Dengue Cases; and rainfall and Dengue Cases (2014–2018) with different lag periods in Delhi and Visakhapatnam (*indicates p value at 5% significance level)

From: El Niño Southern Oscillation as an early warning tool for dengue outbreak in India

Lag-month Delhi (Correlation coefficient, ‘r’) Visakhapatnam (Correlation coefficient, ‘r’)
Positive ONI & dengue cases Rainfall & dengue cases Positive ONI & dengue cases Rainfall & dengue cases
0 0.368 −0.053 −0.541 0.316
1 0.429* 0.189 −0.545* 0.661
2 0.401* 0.412* −0.552* 0.742*
3 0.217 0.285 −0.537* 0.501*
4 −0.152 0.093 −0.498 0.141
5 −0.178 0.079 −0.44 −0.111
6 −0.131 0.088 −0.431 −0.293
S Error 0.105 0.058 0.019 0.147