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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants across glycemic categories: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study (phase IV: 2008–2011)

From: Sex-specific prevalence of coronary heart disease among Tehranian adult population across different glycemic status: Tehran lipid and glucose study, 2008–2011

  Men Women
NFG/NGT Prediabetes (IFG or IGT) DM P-value* NFG/NGT Prediabetes (IFG or IGT) DM P-value*
Number of participants 1891 1000 536   2531 1040 720  
Continuous variables, Mean ± SD
 Age (year) 47.2 ± 12.8 53.6 ± 13.7 59.5 ± 12.6 < 0.001 45.2 ± 11.5 52.8 ± 11.9 58.7 ± 10.7 < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.6 ± 4.0 28.0 ± 4.1 28.1 ± 4.1 < 0.001 28.5 ± 4.7 31.4 ± 18 31.3 ± 5.6 < 0.001
 Waist to hip ratio × 100 95.9 ± 6.3 98.6 ± 5.7 100.6 ± 5.7 < 0.001 90.7 ± 7.6 95.2 ± 7.4 99.2 ± 6.8 < 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 117.1 ± 15.6 124.0 ± 18.3 130 ± 19.2 < 0.001 111.9 ± 16.2 122.2 ± 19.5 129.8 ± 22.0 < 0.001
 DBP (mmHg) 78.9 ± 10.5 80.8 ± 10.8 82.3 ± 11.0 < 0.001 74.7 ± 10.4 78.4 ± 10.8 79.8 ± 11.6 < 0.001
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.9 ± 0.9 5.0 ± 1.0 4.8 ± 1.0 < 0.001 5.0 ± 0.9 5.4 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 1.2 < 0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 1.1 ± 0.2 0.109 1.3 ± 0.3 1.3 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 < 0.001
 Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.5 (1.1–2.1) 1.7 (1.2–2.3) 1.8 (1.3–2.5) < 0.001 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 1.9 (1.4–2.8) < 0.001
Categorical variables, n (%)
 Smoking status     < 0.001     0.382
  - Never 1055 (55.8%) 578 (57.8%) 303 (56.5%)   2403 (94.9%) 994 (95.6%) 690 (96.0%)  
  - Past 345 (18.2%) 227 (22.7%) 140 (26.1%)   45 (1.8%) 16 (1.5%) 15 (2.1%)  
  - Current 491 (26.0%) 195 (19.5%) 93 (17.4%)   83 (3.3%) 30 (2.9%) 14 (1.9%)  
 Education level     < 0.001     < 0.001
  - < 6 years 283 (15.0%) 256 (25.6%) 198 (36.9%)   578 (22.8%) 448 (43.1%) 450 (62.6%)  
  - 6–12 years 1042 (55.1%) 524 (52.4%) 255 (47.6%)   1405 (55.5%) 491 (47.2%) 232 (32.3%)  
  - > 12 years 566 (29.9%) 220 (22.0%) 83 (15.5%)   548 (21.7%) 101 (9.7%) 37 (5.1%)  
 Low physical activity, yes 723 (39.6%) 401 (43.3%) 203 (41.6%) 0.169 620 (24.6%) 272 (26.6%) 259 (37.6%) < 0.001
 Family history of premature CVD, yes 78 (4.1%) 43 (4.3%) 28 (5.2%) 0.543 160 (6.3%) 81 (7.8%) 47 (6.5%) 0.276
 Lipid-lowering medication, yes 80 (4.2%) 96 (9.6%) 129 (24.1%) < 0.001 129 (5.1%) 131 (12.6%) 262 (36.4%) < 0.001
 Anti-hypertensive medication, yes 126 (6.7%) 121 (12.1%) 148 (27.6%) < 0.001 194 (7.7%) 215 (20.7%) 317 (44.1%) < 0.001
  1. Values are shown as Mean ± SD and number (%), for continuous and categorical variables, respectively; Triglycerides are given as median (interquartile range) due to skewed distribution
  2. BMI Body mass index, SBP Systolic blood pressure, DBP Diastolic blood pressure, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, CVD Cardiovascular disease, NFG Normal fasting glucose, NGT Normal glucose tolerance, IFG Impaired fasting glucose, IGT Impaired glucose tolerance, DM Diabetes mellitus
  3. *The comparison p-value between groups was calculated using ANOVA test for normal continues variables, chi-square test for categorical variables and kruskal wallis test for skewed variables