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Table 2 Adjusted Hazard Ratios of Mortality for Urban-Rural Residence, CLHLS 2002–2014

From: Individual-level factors attributable to urban-rural disparity in mortality among older adults in China

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V Model VI Model VII
Urban (rural) 0.89** 0.97 0.89** 0.91** 0.90** 0.92* 0.96
Demographic Background
 Age 1.10*** 1.09*** 1.09*** 1.09*** 1.08*** 1.07*** 1.07***
 Male 1.31*** 1.45*** 1.37*** 1.30*** 1.45*** 1.45*** 1.51***
 Han (non-Han) 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.91 0.87* 0.88* 0.89*
Socioeconomic Factors
 1–6 years of schooling (0)   0.93+      0.98
 7+ years of schooling (0)   0.82**      0.90+
 Economic independence (no)   0.75***      0.81***
 White collar occupation (no)   1.11*      1.07
 Good family economic condition (no)   0.97      1.01
 Adequate access to healthcare (no)   0.80***      0.91+
Family/Social Support
 Currently married (no)    0.88**    0.91+ 0.94
 Close proximity to children (no)    1.02    1.01 1.00
 Primary support, child/relative (spouse)    1.05    1.05 1.04
 Primary support, friend (spouse)    0.98    1.01 0.99
 Primary support, other (spouse)    1.40+    1.14 1.15
 Primary support, nobody (spouse)    1.45***    1.23** 1.22**
Health Behaviors
 Leisure activity level, intermediate (low)     0.59***   0.71*** 0.73***
 Leisure activity level, high (low)     0.47***   0.61*** 0.64***
 Currently smoking (no)     1.07   1.08+ 1.08+
 Ever engaged in physical labor (no)     0.98   1.00 0.96
Health Conditions
 IADL disabled (no)      1.40*** 1.33*** 1.30***
 ADL disabled (no)      1.52*** 1.39*** 1.39***
 Cognitively impaired (no)      1.36*** 1.26*** 1.25***
 Has 1+ chronic disease (no)      1.09* 1.10** 1.10**
Survey Year
 Wave 2005 (2002) 0.82*** 0.84*** 0.83*** 0.81*** 0.84*** 0.83*** 0.84***
 Wave 2008 (2002) 0.60*** 0.61*** 0.60*** 0.58*** 0.60*** 0.60*** 0.60***
 Wave 2011 (2002) 0.30*** 0.31*** 0.30*** 0.29*** 0.31*** 0.31*** 0.31***
 Df 7 13 13 11 11 21 27
 Wald test χ2 value 2423.6*** 2436/3*** 2522.4*** 2921.7*** 3031.3*** 3377.1*** 3388.6***
 Wald test χ2 value fort models vs. Model I a 95.1*** 54.1*** 258.9*** 349.1*** 508.6*** 538.4***
 Wald test χ2 value for Model VII vs. models b 538.4*** 433.5*** 477.8*** 274.6*** 159.8*** 34.7***
  1. Note: (1) Reference group indicated in parentheses. (2) a, A Wald test for a given model whether the inclusion of new variables significantly improve the goodness of fit compared to Model I; (3) b, A Wald test for Model VII compared to each of other models. (4) + p < 0.1, *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001