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Table 5 Unconditional Re-centred Influence Function (RIF) quantile regression results for NFHS 3 (2005-06) and NFHS 4 (2015-16) in Bihar

From: Deciphering disparities in childhood stunting in an underdeveloped state of India: an investigation applying the unconditional quantile regression method

  NFHS 3 NFHS 4
10 25 50 75 90 10 25 50 75 90
Age of Child −0.021
(0.038)
− 0.100***
(0.024)
− 0.148***
(0.022)
− 0.153***
(0.032)
− 0.215***
(0.040)
−0.095***
(0.025)
− 0.106***
(0.020)
− 0.171***
(0.020)
− 0.197***
(.030)
− 0.124***
(0.037)
Age2 −0.001
(0.001)
0.001*
(0.0007)
0.002***
(0.0006)
0.002**
(.0008)
0.004***
(0.001)
0.002***
(0.0007)
0.002***
(0.0006)
0.003***
(0.0005)
0.004***
(0.0008)
0.002**
(0.0009)
Female 0.172
(0.183)
−0.02
(0.126)
0.024
(0.114)
0.139
(0.150)
0.177
(0.172)
0.355***
(0.127)
0.237**
(0.103)
0.167*
(0.100)
0.065
(0.140)
0.193
(0.174)
Birth Size
Normal           
Average and above 0.064
(0.209)
0.037
(0.147)
0.089
(0.132)
0.276
(0.175)
−0.007
(0.193)
0.109
(0.150)
0.142
(0.163)
0.189
(0.135)
0.237
(0.201)
0.226
(0.259)
Small −0.227
(0.248)
−0.102
(0.166)
− 0.187
(0.149)
− 0.109
(0.195)
− 0.106
(0.222)
− 0.256
(0.218)
− 0.245
(0.106)
−0.203
(0.149)
0.166
(0.215)
0.432
(0.307)
 Early Breastfeeding (yes) 0.538
(0.484)
0.715**
(0.336)
0.326
(0.371)
0.449
(.434)
0.102
(0.484)
0.105
(0.127)
−0.017
(0.041)
0.049
(0.104)
0.038
(0.147)
0.047
(0.186)
 No. of Siblings −0.112**
(0.055)
−0.075**
(0.035)
− 0.052*
(0.031)
−0.013
(.041)
0.012
(0.047)
−0.117**
(0.054)
− 0.039
(0.106)
0.025
(0.038)
− 0.018
(0.051)
−0.036
(0.071)
 Benefitted ICDS services (yes) −0.187
(0.388)
− 0.150
(0.251)
0.156
(0.205)
0.158
(.275)
0.362
(0.362)
−0.069
(0.128)
−0.245**
(0.106)
− 0.259**
(0.107)
− 0.183
(0.150)
− 0.619***
(0.199)
Mother’s Characteristics
Institutional Delivery − 0.206
(0.261)
−0.224
(0.171)
− 0.085
(.1490)
− 0.016
(.204)
− 0.235
(0.230)
0.090
(0.148)
0.224*
(0.122)
−0.098
(0.114)
− 0.235
(0.168)
− 0.041
(0.210)
 Age of mother at first birth − 0.022
(0.035)
− 0.009
(0.024)
0.009
(0.021)
− 0.017
(.029)
0.004
(0.035)
0.000
(0.019)
0.000
(0.017)
0.005
(0.016)
0.009
(0.021)
0.066**
(0.028)
 BMI of mother 0.001*
(0.0004)
0.001***
(0.0002)
0.001***
(0.0002)
0.001***
(.0003)
0.001***
(0.0003)
0.001***
(0.0002)
0.000***
(0.000)
0.001***
(0.0001)
0.000
(0.0002)
0.000
(0.0003)
Mother’s anaemia
 Yes −0.275
(0.205)
−0.292**
(0.143)
− 0.120
(0.130)
− 0.171
(.170)
−0.088
(0.196)
− 0.200
(0.130)
0.007
(0.109)
0.118
(0.106)
−0.047
(0.146)
− 0.027
(0.178)
 Mother’s height 0.004**
(0.001)
0.006***
(0.001)
0.005***
(0.001)
0.005***
(.001)
0.008***
(0.001)
0.006***
(0.001)
0.004***
(0.001)
0.006***
(0.001)
0.006***
(0.001)
0.005***
(0.001)
 Mother’s Education 0.017
(0.028)
0.019
(0.019)
0.025
(0.019)
0.045
(.028)
0.014
(0.033)
0.025
(0.015)
0.014
(0.013)
0.015
(0.013)
−0.033*
(0.018)
0.001
(0.024)
 Working mother 0.283
(0.281)
0.199
(0.183)
−0.125
(0.152)
− 0.084
(.196)
0.38*
(0.206)
−0.241
(0.198)
− 0.316*
(0.162)
− 0.051
(0.159)
− 0.210
(0.233)
0.231
(0.253)
 Empowerment − 0.097
(0.067)
− 0.073
(0.048)
0.011
(0.046)
0.059
(.061)
0.011
(0.070)
0.003
(0.047)
0.007
(0.109)
0.036
(0.037)
0.037
(0.053)
0.081
(0.064)
 media exposure 0.090
(0.215)
0.148
(0.147)
0.131
(0.131)
−0.037
(.167)
−0.162
(0.176)
− 0.033
(0.043)
−0.019
(0.034)
− 0.005
(0.033)
0.034
(0.046)
0.001
(0.060)
Religion
 Hindu           
 Muslim/Others 0.187
(0.245)
−0.015
(0.170)
0.108
(0.157)
0.286
(.216)
−0.290
(0.209)
0.035
(0.162)
−0.099
(0.145)
−0.118
(0.141)
− 0.407**
(0.193)
−0.409
(0.253)
Caste
 SC           
 ST 1.489***
(0.494)
0.427
(0.898)
0.149
(0.707)
−0.094
(1.048)
−0.429
(0.411)
0.249
(0.170)
0.023
(0.130)
0.087
(0.120)
−0.065
(0.174)
−0.029
(0.221)
 Others 0.069
(0.275)
0.259
(0.186)
0.319**
(0.160)
0.529***
(.179)
0.309*
(0.181)
0.305
(0.212)
0.146
(0.183)
0.369**
(0.182)
0.160
(0.258)
−0.041
(0.329)
Wealth index 0.000**
(0.000)
0.000**
(0.000)
0.000**
(0.000)
0.000**
(0.000)
0.000
(0.000)
0.000
(0.000)
0.000
(0.000)
0.000**
(0.000)
0.000**
(0.000)
0.000
(0.000)
Place of residence
 Urban           
 Rural 0.207
(0.197)
0.023
(0.136)
0.006
(0.138)
0.265
(.1940)
0.085
(0.224)
−0.177
(0.194)
− 0.089
(0.170)
− 0.132
(0.170)
− 0.173
(0.250)
0.101
(0.297)
 Constant −9.868***
(3.174)
−12.311***
(1.948)
−9.598***
(1.762)
−9.526***
(2.390)
−11.783***
(2.836)
− 12.537***
(2.092)
−8.243***
(1.664)
− 9.426***
(1.656)
−7.241***
(1.983)
−6.973***
(2.338)
 R square 0.090 0.171 0.209 0.176 0.124 0.061 0.094 0.177 0.115 0.062
 Adj. R square 0.072 0.155 0.193 0.159 0.107 0.049 0.083 0.167 0.104 0.050
  1. ***p < 0.001; **p < 0.01; *p < 0.05; Source: Computed by the authors from unit-level data of NFHS 3 and NFHS 4; Values in parenthesis are standard errors