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Table 1 Baseline and 2 years follow-up characteristics by immigration status: Swedish-born population and Foreign-born population

From: Predictive association between immigration status and chronic pain in the general population: results from the SwePain cohort

Characteristics, n (%) otherwise stated Swedish-born population (N = 14,093; 90%) Foreign-born population (N = 1470; 10%) p value
Baseline
 Age (mean, SD) 51.9 (18.5) 48.9 (17.2) < 0.001
 Women 7599 (54) 813 (55) 0.32
 Married 7015 (50) 810 (55) 0.95
 University education 5062 (37) 527 (38) 0.66
 Financial hardship 1512 (11) 451 (32) < 0.001
 Pain intensity (mean, SD) 5.2 (1.9) 5.4 (2.1) 0.21
 GWBS Anxiety (mean, SD) 7.1 (5.1) 8.9 (5.3) < 0.001
 GWBS Depression (mean SD) 4.9 (3.7) 6.5 (4.3) < 0.001
 CP 5285 (38) 632 (44) 0.007
 CWSP 1012 (7) 174 (12) < 0.001
 Severe CP 391 (27) 54 (34) 0.06
2 years follow-up Swedish-born population (N = 10,496; 92%) Foreign-born population (N = 890; 8%)  
 Age (mean, SD) 56.0 (17.6) 53.3 (16.7) < 0.001
 Women 5674 (55) 483 (56) 0.90
 Married 5601 (53) 504 (56) < 0.001
 University education 4058 (39) 356 (42) 0.43
 Financial hardship 846 (8) 213 (25) < 0.001
 Pain intensity (mean, SD) 4.7 (1.9) 5.3 (2.1) < 0.001
 GWBS Anxiety (mean, SD) 6.9 (5.1) 8.4 (5.4) < 0.001
 GWBS Depression (mean SD) 4.9 (3.7) 6.1 (4.3) < 0.001
 CP 4083 (39) 395 (45) < 0.001
 CWSP 793 (8) 101 (11) < 0.001
 Severe CP 951 (20) 158 (32) < 0.001
  1. Notes: CP=Chronic pain, CWSP=Chronic widespread pain, CGWBS = General Well-Being Scale, SD = standard deviation