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Table 4 Estimates of panel regression for presence of children on smoking behavior: subsamples

From: The effect of the presence of children on adult smoking behaviour: empirical evidence based on China family panel studies

Subsamples regression A: by education attainment
  (1) (2)
VARIABLES Smoke Smoke
  Middle School and lower High School and above
  Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
number of children 1.02 0.96 1.07 0.92*** 0.87 0.97
Age 0.37** 0.17 0.79 1.08 0.51 2.28
Married 1.54 0.68 3.52 0.76 0.33 1.77
Years edu 0.93*** 0.88 0.98 0.98 0.86 1.13
Year effect 3.73* 0.81 17.17 0.68 0.15 3.00
Observations 28,124    17,389   
Number of household 17,960    12,382   
Subsamples regression B: by occupations
  (1)    (2)   
VARIABLES Smoke    Smoke   
  High Skilled labor    Low Skilled labor   
  Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
number of children 0.89** 0.80 0.99 1.02 0.94 1.12
Age 0.26 0.05 1.44 1.29 0.61 2.72
Married 0.21* 0.04 1.20 4.35** 1.24 15.27
Years edu 0.96 0.84 1.09 0.91* 0.83 1.00
Year effect 15.51 0.54 448.13 0.27* 0.06 1.18
Observations 8542    17,945   
Number of household 6049    12,801   
Subsamples regression C: by urban and rural
  (1)    (2)   
VARIABLS Smoke    Smoke   
  Rural    Urban   
  Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
number of children 0.93*** 0.90 0.97 0.92*** 0.88 0.97
Age 0.78 0.51 1.19 1.30 0.78 2.16
Married 1.08 0.61 1.90 1.14 0.52 2.47
Years edu 0.96* 0.91 1.00 0.93** 0.87 0.99
Year effect 0.73 0.32 1.68 0.43 0.16 1.20
Observations 25,905    19,570   
Number of household 13,175    9978   
Subsamples regression D: by age gap
  (1)    (2)   
VARIABLES Smoke    Smoke   
  age gap > 2    age gap<=2   
  Odds Ratio 95% CI Odds Ratio 95% CI
number of children 0.91*** 0.88 0.95 0.96 0.88 1.06
Age 1.09 0.63 1.89 0.20** 0.05 0.72
Married 0.77 0.41 1.44 2.22 0.42 11.78
Years of edu 0.96 0.91 1.01 0.99 0.93 1.07
Year effect 0.42 0.14 1.26 17.73** 1.36 230.37
Observations 10,548    9432   
Number of household 5609    4985   
  1. Note: *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1