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Table 3 Unweighted mixed-effects logistic regression model of the association between having a usual source of care and (A) citizenship status and (B) the interaction of citizenship status and criminalization policy

From: States with fewer criminalizing immigrant policies have smaller health care inequities between citizens and noncitizens

  Model A Model B
OR p-value OR p-value
Citizenship
 US Born 1.45 < 0.05 1.20 0.1
 Naturalized 1.28 < 0.05 1.60 < 0.05
 Noncitizen ref   ref  
# Criminalization Policies 0.91 < 0.05 0.90 < 0.05
Race/Ethnicity
 White 0.91 0.04 0.90 0.02
 Black 0.92 0.1 0.91 0.8
 Asian 0.82 < 0.05 0.81 < 0.05
 Latino ref   ref  
Age 1.03 < 0.05 1.03 < 0.05
Gender
 Female 2.10 < 0.05 2.10 < 0.05
 Male ref   ref  
High school graduate or higher
 Yes 1.11 < 0.05 1.12 < 0.05
 No ref   ref  
Currently working
 Yes 0.90 < 0.05 0.90 < 0.05
 No ref   ref  
Currently married
 Yes 1.46 < 0.05 1.48 < 0.05
 No ref   ref  
Has health insurance
 Yes 6.39 < 0.05 6.40 < 0.05
 No ref   ref  
Speaks English Well
 Yes 1.13 0.04 1.10 0.04
 No ref   ref  
# Inclusion Policies 0.97 0.04 0.97 0.03
Percent of state that voted Republican in 2012 0.40 < 0.05 0.40 < 0.05
Citizenship X Criminalization policy*
 NaturalizedXCriminalization Policy    0.93 0.1
 US BornXCriminalization Policy    1.06 0.05
 NoncitizenXCriminalization Policy    ref  
Intercept 0.32 < 0.05 0.36 < 0.05
State random intercept 1.11   1.10  
  1. Notes
  2. Source: National Health Interivew Survey, 2014–2015, Latino, White, Black, and Asian adults ages 18–64 (n = 51,581)
  3. *Interaction term statistically significant at p < 0.05