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Table 2 Significant associations between mortality rates and air pollutant concentrations nationwide and in capital, non-capital, urban, and rural areas

From: Association between long-term exposure to air pollutants and cardiopulmonary mortality rates in South Korea

Ischemic heart disease mortality rate
Air pollutant Nationwide Capital Non-capital Urban Rural
 CO      
 SO2 + + + + +
 NO2    +   
 O3     +  
 PM10      
Cerebrovascular disease mortality rate
Air pollutant Nationwide Capital Non-capital Urban Rural
 CO      +
 SO2 + + + +  
 NO2   +   
 O3      
 PM10 +   +   +
Pneumonia mortality rate
Air pollutant Nationwide Capital Non-capital Urban Rural
 CO      
 SO2     
 NO2    
 O3 +    +  
 PM10     
Chronic Lower Respiratory Disease mortality rate
Air pollutant Nationwide Capital Non-capital Urban Rural
 CO    
 SO2      +
 NO2 +
 O3 + +   +  
 PM10     
  1. “+” denotes a positive association, which means increased air pollutant concentrations are associated with higher mortality rates in the study districts
  2. “–” denotes a negative association, which that means the opposite of “+”
  3. Blank denotes null associations
  4. The significance of the associations was determined using 95% confidence intervals
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