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Table 1 Characteristics of the study area

From: Association between long-term exposure to air pollutants and cardiopulmonary mortality rates in South Korea

Characteristics Median (first–third quartile range)
Number of districts analyzed 249
IHDa: Age-adjusted mortality rate (per 100,000) 21.6 (19.4–25.3)
CVDb: Age-adjusted mortality rate (per 100,000) 50.7 (46.5–54.5)
PNc: Age-adjusted mortality rate (per 100,000) 12.2 (10.9–13.5)
CLRDd: Age-adjusted mortality rate (per 100,000) 13.8 (11.7–16.0)
Carbon monoxide (ppb) e 554 (476–624)
Nitrogen dioxide (ppb) 20.1 (14.6–26.8)
Sulfate dioxide (ppb) 4.89 (4.15–5.56)
Ozone (ppb) 24.3 (21.6–27.6)
PM10 (μg/m3) 50.2 (46.1–55.5)
Altitude (m) 124 (59.9–220)
Population density (per km2) 361 (109–6042)
Higher-education rate f (%) 34.4 (22.9–43.0)
Smoking rate g (%) 25.1 (23.5–26.8)
Obesity rate h (%) 22.4 (20.9–24.4)
GRDPi (million won) 22.9 (16.7–29.0)
  1. From 2001 to 2018, the population of all 249 South Korean administrative districts, Si-Gun-Gus, were studied. The South Korean population, as of 2010 (in the middle of the study period) was 50,515,666 persons. Throughout the study period, a total of 4,558,640 all-cause deaths were recorded. Among them, 242,711 deaths were attributed to IHD, 509,740 deaths to CVD, 160,174 deaths to PN, and 138,271 deaths to CLRD
  2. aIschemic Heart Disease (IHD): Total number of deaths by IHD in 2001–2018 was 242,711. The annual raw mortality rates throughout the study period were adjusted for each district’s age distribution to the standard South Korean population in 2010
  3. bCerebrovascular Disease (CVD): Total number of deaths by CVD in 2001–2018 was 509,740
  4. cPneumonia (PN): Total number of deaths by PN in 2001–2018 was 160,174
  5. dChronic Lower Respiratory Disease (CLRD): Total number of deaths by CLRD in 2001–2018 was 138,271
  6. eAir pollution data from 2001 to 2018, in daily mean concentrations according to the positions of monitoring stations were accessed using the AirKorea database. An interpolation model based on a geographical information system was applied to yield the average air pollutant concentration throughout the study period of the corresponding districts
  7. fRate of > 15-year-old persons with college education or more in 2010
  8. gRate of current smokers adjusted for the age of the national standard population in 2010
  9. hRate of population with body mass index > 25 kg/m2 adjusted for the age of the national standard population in 2010
  10. iGross Regional Domestic Product per capita (GRDP) in 2011