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Table 5 The direct, indirect, and total effects of different forms of IPV on unintended pregnancy adjusting for mediators, Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey, 2016

From: The mediation effect of contraceptive use and women’s autonomy on the relationship between intimate partner violence and unintended pregnancy in Ethiopia

IPV forms Effects AOR (95% CI)a
Emotional IPV Direct effect 1.32 (0.95, 1.84)
Indirect effect through contraception use 1.11 (0.95, 1.31)
Indirect effect through women’s autonomy 1.23 (1.04, 1.46)*
Total indirect effect 1.37 (1.08, 1.74)*
Total effect 1.81 (1.26, 2.60)**
Total proportion mediated = 52.8%
Proportion mediated through women’s autonomy only = 34.5%
IPV (physical, sexual, emotional) Direct effect 1.35 (1.01, 1.80)*
Indirect effect through contraception use 1.00 (0.93, 1.08)
Indirect effect through women’s autonomy 1.18 (1.01, 1.37)*
Total indirect effect 1.18 (1.01, 1.39)*
Total effect 1.59 (1.17, 2.17)**
Total proportion mediated = 35.6%
Proportion mediated through women’s autonomy only = 35.4%
Multiple partner control behaviours Direct effect 1.44 (1.06, 1.97)*
Indirect effect through contraception use 1.11 (0.95, 1.29)
Indirect effect through women’s autonomy 1.41 (1.10, 1.80)**
Total indirect effect 1.56 (1.15, 2.11)**
Total effect 2.25 (1.49, 3.38)***
Total proportion mediated = 54.9%
Proportion mediated through women’s autonomy only = 43.4%
  1. IPV intimate partner violence, AOR adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval; aThe models were adjusted for age of women, education, rurality (urban/rural), religion, region of residence, number of children ever born, and wealth; ***p < 0.001, **p < 0.01, *p < 0.05