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Table 3 Association between anxiety, depression, PTSD and demographic and health- related variables

From: Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Ebola survivors in northern Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study

  Anxiety Depression PTSD
Characteristics Variables Possible case of anxiety (HADS cut-off score ≥ 8) Symptom of anxiety n(%) No possible case of anxiety (HADS cut-off score < 8) n (%) P-value Possible case of depression (HADs cut-off score ≥ 8) No possible case of depression (HADs cut-off score < 8) P-value Possible case of PTSD (cut-off score ≥ 45) No possible case of PTSD (cut-off score < 45) P-value
Age Group < 30 years 34(69.4) 133(89.9) 0.001 67(72.0) 100(96.2) < 0.001 36(83.7) 131(85.1) 0.828
≥30 years 15(30.6) 15(10.1) 26(28.0) 4(3.8) 7(16.3) 23(14.9)
Sex Male 25(49.3) 73(51.0) 0.837 47(50.5) 51(49.0) 0.834 21(48.8) 77(50.0) 0.893
Female 24(49.0) 75(50.7) 46(49.5) 53(51.0) 22(51.2) 77(50.0)
Marital status Single /divorced/widow/widower 36(73.5) 102(68.9) 0.547 63(67.7) 75(72.1) 0.503 32(74.4) 106(68.8) 0.479
Married 13(26.5) 46(31.1) 30(32.3) 29(27.9) 11(25.6) 48(31.2)
Monthly income level < 1000,000 Leones 48(98.0) 145(98.0) 0.995 90(96.8) 103(99.0) 0.261 42(97.7) 151(98.1) 0.877
≥1million 1(2.0) 3(2.0) 3(3.2) 1(1.0) 1(2.3) 3(1.9)
Educational status Non-formal education 17(34.7) 56(37.8) 0.558 39(41.9) 34(32.7) 0.578 18(41.9) 55(35.7) 0.576
Primary education 6(12.2) 26(17.6) 13(14.0) 19(18.3) 4(9.3) 28(18.2)
Secondary education 21(42.9) 47(31.8) 30(32.3) 38(36.5) 16(37.2) 52(33.8)
Tertiary education 5(10.2) 19(12.8) 11(11.8) 13(12.5) 5(11.6) 19(12.3)
Number of emotional support None 3(6.1) 4(2.7) 0.243 4(4.3) 3(2.9) 0.038 2(4.7) 5(3.2) 0.459
1–2 20(40.8) 50(33.8) 41(44.1) 29(27.9) 12(27.9) 58(37.7)
> 2 26(53.1) 94(63.5) 48(51.6) 72(69.2) 29(67.4) 91(59.1)
Affect by the death of friend or relative Not affected 5(10.2) 4(2.7) 0.001 6(6.5) 3(2.9) 0.528 3(7.0) 6(3.9) 0.533
Slightly affected 3(6.1) 26(17.6) 15(16.1) 14(13.5) 4(9.3) 25(16.2)
Badly affected 31(63.3) 109(73.6) 62(66.7) 78(75.0) 31(72.1) 109(70.8)
Not applicable 10(20.4) 9(6.1) 10(10.8) 9(8.7) 5(11.6) 14(9.1)
Number of current post-Ebola sequelae experienced None 6(12.2) 16(10.8) 0.274 11(11.8) 11(10.6) 0.021 2(4.7) 20(13.0) 0.337
1–2 15(30.6) 30(20.3) 29(31.2) 16(15.4) 10(23.3) 35(22.7)
> 2 28(57.1) 102(68.9) 53(57.0) 77(74.0) 31(72.1) 99(64.3)
Past psychiatric history prior to being diagnosed with Ebola Yes 4(8.2) 5(3.4) 0.164 4(4.3) 5(4.8) 0.865 2(4.7) 7(4.5) 0.977
No 45(91.8) 143(96.6) 89(95.7) 99(95.2) 41(95.3) 147(95.5)
Alcohol intake before Ebola Yes 21(42.9) 39(26.4) 0.030 38(40.9) 22(21.2) 0.003 18(41.9) 42(27.3) 0.066
No 28(57.1) 109(73.6) 55(59.1) 82(78.8) 25(58.1) 112(72.7)
Alcohol intake after Ebola Increased 3(6.1) 9(6.1) 0.333 6(6.5) 6(5.8) 0.020 4(9.3) 8(5.2) 0.310
Decreased 11(22.4) 20(13.5) 20(21.5) 11(10.6) 8(18.6) 23(14.9)
Remain the same 7(14.3) 16(10.8) 15(16.1) 8(7.7) 7(16.3) 16(10.4)
Not applicable 28(57.1) 103(69.6) 52(55.9) 79(76.0) 24(55.8) 107(69.5)
Level of exercise after Ebola Increased 5(10.2) 28(18.9) 0.010 11(11.8) 22(21.2) 0.002 8(18.6) 25(16.2) 0.575
Decreased 37(75.5) 73(49.3) 64(68.8) 46(44.2) 26(60.5) 84(54.5)
Remain the same 6(13.0) 44(29.7) 18(19.4) 36(34.6) 9(20.9) 45(29.2)
Not applicable 1(2.0) 3(2.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0) 0(0.0)
Knowledge of relative or friend death due to Ebola Yes 41(83.7) 138(93.2) 0.044 84(90.3) 95(91.3) 0.803 41(95.3) 138(89.6) 0.248
No 8(16.3) 10(6.8) 9(9.7) 9(8.7) 2(4.7) 15(10.4)