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Table 6 Agreement with sanitation related statements among respondents

From: Cluster-randomised trial to test the effect of a behaviour change intervention on toilet use in rural India: results and methodological considerations

Item Control Intervention PD, % 95% CI APD% 95% CI
N % N %
Most people around here use a toilet regularly. 1214 83.6 1278 89.5 5.2 1.0/9.4 4.6 0.5/8.7
Everyone in my household uses a toilet. 1214 87.0 1278 90.9 3.8 −1.0/ 8.6 2.8 − 1.9/7.5
Many people around here are improving their toilets. 1214 71.6 1278 77.2 5.5 1.1/ 9.9 5.6 1.2/10.1
Using a toilet saves time and effort compared to open defecation. 1214 97.9 1278 98.2 0.3 −1.0/1.6 0.3 −1.0/1.6
Using a toilet builds your reputation in the community. 1214 97.6 1278 97.9 0.2 −1.2/1.7 0.0 −1.5/1.5
A smart person is one who uses a toilet. 1214 53.0 1278 51.6 −1.2 −6.5/4.2 − 1.1 −6.4/4.3
It is possible to feel proud of one’s toilet. 1214 94.9 1278 96.6 1.7 −0.2/3.5 1.4 −0.4/3.2
Most people around here think it’s good to use a toilet. 1214 96.1 1278 96.9 0.7 −1.3/2.8 0.5 − 1.6/2.6
Using a latrine gives me a ‘packed’ (claustrophobic) feeling. 1214 6.7 1278 5.5 −1.3 −3.3/0.7 −0.8 −2.8/1.1
Toilets are not just for women; men should use them too. 1214 81.0 1278 79.4 −1.2 −6.3/4.0 − 1.0 −6.2/4.2
It is appropriate to have a toilet as good as your house. 1214 98.4 1278 98.6 0.1 −0.9/1.2 0.0 −1.0/1.1
It is ok for poor people to practice open defecation. 1214 21.6 1278 17.7 −4.0 −7.1/−1.0 −3.3 −6.2/−0.4
Toilet pits fill quickly if too many people in the household use them. 1214 66.1 1278 65.7 0.1 −4.7/5.0 0.5 −4.2/5.3
Most of the people I care about think I should use a toilet. 1214 96.0 1278 95.9 −0.1 −1.9/1.7 −0.2 −1.9/1.4
People around here think a household should have a good toilet. 1214 97.9 1278 98.0 0.1 −1.1/1.3 0.1 −1.1/1.3
Even if no one else around here had a good toilet, I would still make sure I had one. 1214 91.4 1278 94.1 2.7 −0.4/5.8 2.1 −0.9/5.2
During farming season, most people around here defecate in the field/open 1214 68.7 1278 62.5 −5.9 −11.0/0.8 −4.9 −9.8/0.1
Defecating in the field is more convenient than using a toilet 1214 18.4 1278 17.8 −0.5 −4.1/3.2 0.4 −3.3/4.1
Having a good toilet at home is a mark of better status in the village 1214 98.1 1278 98.1 −0.1 −1.3/1.2 −0.1 −1.3/1.1
  1. PD prevalence difference, calculated using linear regression (function: Gaussian, link: identity). Clustering at village level was adjusted for by using generalised estimating equations and robust standard errors. APD adjusted prevalence difference. PD was adjusted for asset index (continuous variable) and maximum male education level (dichotomised into primary or less vs secondary or higher)