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Table 3 Effect of the intervention on study outcomes

From: Cluster-randomised trial to test the effect of a behaviour change intervention on toilet use in rural India: results and methodological considerations

Item Control Intervention PD, % 95% CI APD% 95% CI ICC
N % N %
Baseline
 Use of toilet by all household members (irrespective of apparent toilet use) 328 87.0 303 83.4 −4.9    
Endline
Primary outcome
  Use of toilet by all household members 1208 83.8 1275 90.0 6.3 1.1 / 11.4 5.0 −0.1 / 10.1 0.14
Secondary outcomes
  Individually reported toilet use (reported use not collapsed at household level) 6174 85.1 6679 91.2 6.1 1.1 / 11.2 4.6 −0.5 / 9.7 0.17
  Individually reported toilet use (physical activity tool) 2253 80.7 2483 82.2 1.5 −3.4 / 6.4 0.12
  Individually reported toilet use (physical activity tool) restricted to households also taking part in endline survey 1636 82.8 1736 85.9 3.3 −1.7 / 8.3 1.7 −3.2 / 6.7 0.11
  1. PD prevalence difference, calculated using linear regression (function: Gaussian, link: identity). Clustering at village level was adjusted for by using generalised estimating equations and robust standard errors. APD adjusted prevalence difference. PD was adjusted for asset index (continuous variable) and maximum male education level (dichotomised into primary or less vs secondary or higher)